Monocytosis - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics (2022)

Monocytosis is defined by an absolute monocyte count of greater than 500/µL and usually occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation resulting from infections like tuberculosis, syphilis, or subacute bacterial endocarditis, autoimmune or granulomatous disease, and sarcoidosis.

From: Goldman's Cecil Medicine (Twenty Fourth Edition), 2012

Leukocytosis

Robert M. Kliegman MD, in Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 2020

Monocytosis

The average absolute blood monocyte count varies with age, which must be considered in the assessment of monocytosis. Given the role of monocytes in antigen presentation and cytokine secretion and as effectors of ingestion of invading organisms, it is not surprising that many clinical disorders give rise to monocytosis (Table 158.2). Typically, monocytosis occurs in patients recovering from myelosuppressive chemotherapy and is a harbinger of the return of the neutrophil count to normal. Monocytosis is occasionally a sign of an acute bacterial, viral, protozoal, or rickettsial infection and may also occur in some forms of chronic neutropenia and postsplenectomy states. Chronic inflammatory conditions can stimulate sustained monocytosis, as can preleukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and lymphomas.

Monocytosis

In Diagnostic Pathology: Blood and Bone Marrow (Second Edition), 2018

Myeloid Neoplasms

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML)

Usually older adults (median age: 65-75 years)

Persistent blood monocytosis > 1 x 10⁹/L

Dysplasia in ≥ 1 myeloid lineage, often dysgranulopoiesis

Blasts (+) promonocytes < 20% of cells

Abnormal monocytes

Abnormal nuclear lobation or chromatin pattern

Abnormal cytoplasmic granulation

Expanded classical monocyte subset

> 94% of circulating monocytes

Often fraction with ↓ CD14 expression

Clonal cytogenetic abnormality (20-40% of cases) or molecular abnormality

Frequently +8, -7/del7q, abnormal 12p

Somatic mutation in 90% (concurrent TET2 and SRSF2 in 35%)

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML)

Children; 75% are < 3 years of age

(Video) White Blood Cells (WBCs) | Your body’s Defense | Hematology

Generally marked hepatosplenomegaly

Often increased hemoglobin F for age

Leukocytosis with left-shifted granulocytes

Peripheral blood monocytosis > 1 x 10⁹/L

Bone marrow monocytes usually 5-10% of cells

Minimal dysplasia

Clonal cytogenetic or molecular abnormalities

Monosomy 7 (25%), other (10%)

Somatic mutations in PTPN11, KRAS, or NRAS

Germline mutations in CBL or NF1; or clinical diagnosis of NF1

Ras-associated autoimmunity leukoproliferative disorder (RALD)

Persistent absolute or relative monocytosis

Clinical findings overlap with JMML

Majority of individuals present in infancy or childhood

Often associated with autoimmune phenomenon

Lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly

Polyclonal B-lymphocytosis, hypergammaglobulinemia

Indolent clinical course

Peripheral blood findings similar to JMML in children and CMML in adults

Expanded nonclassical monocyte subset

CD10(+) B-cells, CD14(+) granulocytes

Hypercellular bone marrow

Activating somatic mutations in KRAS or NRAS

Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable

Myeloid neoplasms with PDGFRB rearrangement

Hematologic features of CMML with eosinophilia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with monocytic differentiation

Recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities

AML with inv(16)(p13.1q22) or t(16;16)(p13.1;q22);CBFB-MYH11

AML with t(9;11)(p22;q23);MLLT3-MLL(KMT2A)

AML with t(6;9)(p23;q34);DEK-NUP214

Acute myelomonocytic leukemia

Acute monoblastic and monocytic leukemia (> 20% blasts & promonocytes)

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Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Elaine S. Jaffe MD, in Hematopathology, 2017

BCR-ABL1–Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Associated With Monocytosis

Monocytosis has been reported in up to 15% of patients with primary myelofibrosis; in one study, it was an independent variable that predicted a worse outcome, particularly in younger patients.136 Because CMML may be associated with prominent reticulin fibrosis,99 its differentiation from primary myelofibrosis and other MPNs can be difficult. In such cases, the bone marrow biopsy finding of clusters of pleomorphic, bizarre megakaryocytes that range in size from small to large with abnormal, bulky nuclei may be the most helpful distinguishing feature; tight clusters of such bizarre megakaryocytes are rarely observed in CMML.

Haematological Diseases in the Tropics

Jecko Thachil, ... Imelda Bates, in Manson's Tropical Infectious Diseases (Twenty-third Edition), 2014

Monocytosis and Monocytopenia

Monocytosis occurs in chronic infections and inflammatory conditions. Protozoan infections such as typhus, trypanosomiasis and kala-azar may be associated with monocytosis. Chronic and juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemias are malignant disorders in which monocytosis may be severe; acute monocytic leukaemias may present with mild to moderate monocytosis. Monocytosis, and particularly a monocyte : lymphocyte ratio greater than 0.8–1.0, may indicate active progression of tuberculosis and an unfavourable prognosis. The normal ratio of 0.3 or less is restored when the healing process is complete.

A decreased absolute monocyte count occurs in bone marrow failure states such as aplastic anaemia or after chemotherapy. Low monocyte counts can occur with overwhelming sepsis and with splenomegaly. Monocytopenia is a characteristic feature of hairy cell leukaemia and is considered to be a diagnostic hallmark of this disease.

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Diseases Related to Immune System Dysfunction

Roberta L. Hines MD, in Stoelting's Anesthesia and Co-Existing Disease, 2018

Monocytosis

Monocytosis occurs in conjunction with inflammatory disorders such as SLE, RA, and sarcoidosis and in the context of certain infections, including tuberculosis, syphilis, and subacute bacterial endocarditis. Monocytosis can also be seen in patients with primary neutropenic disorders or hematologic malignancies. Although monocytes are important components of the immune system, the association between the circulating monocyte count and the propensity for infection is not as clear as in the case of neutrophils.

Abnormalities in leukocyte morphology and number

G Zini, in Blood and Bone Marrow Pathology (Second Edition), 2011

(Video) Immunology Overview

Monocytosis

Monocytosis is defined by the presence of circulating monocytes ≥1.0 × 109/l. The various causes are listed in Box 16.5. The spleen is a site for storage and rapid deployment of monocytes and splenic monocytes are a resource that the body exploits to regulate inflammation.94 Monocytosis occurs as a compensatory event in association with congenital as well as drug-induced neutropenia. It represents a benign non-prognostic epiphenomenon in lymphomas and other solid tumors, without any predictive significance for metastasis. In patients with vascular disorders, increasing monocytosis correlates with an increased risk of heart attack.

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Nonmalignant leukocyte disorders

Steven Marionneaux, in Rodak's Hematology (Sixth Edition), 2020

Monocytes

Monocytosis is defined as an absolute monocyte count greater than 1.0 × 109/L in adults and greater than 3.5 × 109/L in neonates. Monocytosis is associated with numerous conditions because of their role in acute and chronic inflammation and infections, immunologic conditions, hypersensitivity reactions, and tissue repair. Monocytosis is often the first sign of recovery after myelosuppression. It is also seen in congenital cyclic neutropenia, where monocytosis occurs during periods of neutropenia in the 21-day cycle. A list of conditions associated with monocytosis is provided in Box 26.3.

Monocytopenia, defined as an absolute monocyte count of less than 0.2 × 109/L, is very rare in conditions that do not also involve cytopenias of other lineages, such as aplastic anemia or chemotherapy-induced cytopenias. Monocytopenia has been found in patients receiving steroid therapy75 or hemodialysis and in sepsis.76 Viral infections, especially those caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), can also cause monocytopenia.77 Profound monocytopenia is associated with hairy cell leukemia.78

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Neutrophilic Leukocytosis, Neutropenia, Monocytosis, and Monocytopenia

Lawrence Rice, Moonjung Jung, in Hematology (Seventh Edition), 2018

Hematopoietic Malignancies

Monocytosis is common with MDS. CMML is defined as persistent peripheral blood monocytosis greater than 1000/mm3, absent Philadelphia chromosome, and evidence of dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, a disease of children that shares pathologic features with CMML, results from defective RAS signaling. Acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) involving the monocyte line (acute myelomonocytic and acute monoblastic leukemias) may release substantial amounts of lysozyme (muramidase), which is toxic to renal tubules. Serum lysozyme was used to aid in the diagnosis of these leukemias. Monocytosis can result from other myeloid leukemias, MPNs, and lymphomas, particularly Hodgkin disease.

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Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative (aCML)

In Diagnostic Pathology: Blood and Bone Marrow (Second Edition), 2018

Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia

Persistent absolute monocytosis, often significantly increased

Monocytes usually > 10% of WBC

Lacks severe dysgranulopoiesis

Relatively indolent disease

Needs to exclude secondary reactive monocytosis secondary to chronic infection or inflammatory disorders

Major distinction is peripheral blood: Monocytes account for > 10% of WBC and absolute monocytosis in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML)

aCML may have minimal absolute monocytosis but monocyte percentage < 10%

Mutations of TET2, SRSF2, or ZRSR2 are associated with CMML

Presence of SETBP1 mutations favor diagnosis of aCML

Significant molecular overlap between CMML and aCML

(Video) How to distinguish between Lymphocytes vs Monocytes

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Leukocytosis and Leukopenia

Nancy Berliner, in Goldman's Cecil Medicine (Twenty Fourth Edition), 2012

Leukocytosis Due to Expansion of Other Cell Lines

Monocytosis and lymphocytosis can also lead to elevations of the WBC. Monocytosis is defined by an absolute monocyte count of greater than 500/µL and usually occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation resulting from infections like tuberculosis, syphilis, or subacute bacterial endocarditis, autoimmune or granulomatous disease, and sarcoidosis. It can also be seen in malignancies, such as preleukemic states, nonlymphocytic leukemia including acute myelomonocytic and monocytic leukemia, histiocytosis, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and various carcinomas. Finally, it can be seen in the setting of chronic neutropenia, after splenectomy, and in the setting of recovery from marrow suppression (Table 170-2).

Lymphocytosis is defined by an absolute lymphocyte count of more than 5000/µL. The most common causes of an elevated lymphocyte count are viral infections such as Epstein-Barr virus and the hepatitis viruses. Although most bacterial infections cause neutrophilia, pertussis and cat-scratch disease due to Bartonella henselae can cause an impressive lymphocytosis. Other infections that may cause a secondary lymphocytosis include toxoplasmosis and babesiosis. Hypersensitivity reactions due to drugs or serum sickness may also be associated with lymphocytosis. Primary disorders that cause a lymphocytosis include chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (Table 170-3; see also Table 190-2 and Chapter 190).

Eosinophilia is defined by an absolute eosinophil count of more than 400/µL. Eosinophils proliferate under the influence of IL-5 and play a role in phagocytosis and modulating toxicity due to mast cell degranulation in hypersensitivity reactions. Eosinophilia is therefore most often seen in the setting of drug reactions, allergy, atopy, and asthma. A variety of infections, particularly parasitic infections and, to a lesser degree, fungal infections, can be associated with an increased number of circulating eosinophils. Eosinophilia can also be the result of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, as in Churg-Strauss vasculitis. Atheroembolic disease and adrenal insufficiency may also cause eosinophilia. There are a number of cancers that have been associated with polytypic expansion of eosinophils, including lymphomas and solid tumors. There are also a number of clonal disorders of eosinophils that occur in the setting of some leukemias. Finally, there is a heterogeneous group of disorders termed hypereosinophilic syndromes. A FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene has confirmed that some of these are primary clonal disorders of eosinophils; the clonality of other hypereosinophilic syndromes can be difficult to establish (see Table 173-1 in Chapter 173).

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FAQs

What is the most common cause of monocytosis? ›

Common infections causing monocytosis include tuberculosis, subacute bacterial endocarditis, syphilis, protozoal or rickettsial disease. Common autoimmune diseases in the differential include SLE, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, and inflammatory bowel disease.

What is the significance of monocytosis? ›

Monocytosis is often linked to infectious diseases and autoimmune diseases. It's also linked to blood disorders and certain cancers. But being diagnosed with monocytosis doesn't mean you have a serious medical condition. It's simply an indication of potential trouble.

What are the symptoms of monocytosis? ›

Common symptoms reported by people with monocytosis
  • 1 a monocytosis patient reports severe fatigue (33%)
  • 1 a monocytosis patient reports moderate fatigue (33%)
  • 1 a monocytosis patient reports mild fatigue (33%)
  • 0 monocytosis patients report no fatigue (0%)

What is the pathology of monocytes? ›

Monocytes play pleiotropic functions in many inflammation-induced pathologies. Novel data show that monocytes play a critical role in carcinogenesis as well as tumor metastasis. It has been known that monocyte-derived myeloid suppressor cells can suppress the anti-tumor activity of T-cells by producing IL-10.

What medicines cause monocytosis? ›

Monocytosis may be seen in patients receiving cytokines (GM-CSF, M-CSF) TNF-alpha or drugs that increase levels of IL- 3, IL-6, or IL-1. It has also been described in patients taking Olanzapine, allopurinol, corticosteroids, and Griseofulvin.

How do you evaluate monocytosis? ›

Monocytosis is a common finding that is caused by a wide variety of neoplastic and non-neoplastic conditions. The adequate evaluation of monocytosis involves the integration of laboratory data, morphology, clinical findings, and the judicious use of ancillary studies.

When do you see monocytosis? ›

Monocytosis is defined by an absolute monocyte count of greater than 500/µL and usually occurs in the setting of chronic inflammation resulting from infections like tuberculosis, syphilis, or subacute bacterial endocarditis, autoimmune or granulomatous disease, and sarcoidosis.

Does monocytosis mean leukemia? ›

A high monocyte count — also called monocytosis — is often associated with chronic or sub-acute infections. It can also be linked with some types of cancer, especially leukemia. A high monocyte count can occur when you are recovering from an acute infection.

What viruses cause high monocytes? ›

The following are some of the conditions that may be risk factors for elevated monocyte levels:
  • viral infections, such as infectious mononucleosis, mumps, and measles.
  • parasitic infections.
  • bacterial infections, including tuberculosis (TB)
  • chronic inflammatory disease.

What cancers cause high monocytes? ›

The most common sign of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is having too many monocytes (seen on a blood test). Having too many monocytes also causes many of the symptoms of CMML. These monocytes can settle in the spleen or liver, enlarging these organs.

What is monocytes normal range? ›

The normal absolute monocytes range is between 1 and 10% of the body's white blood cells. If the body has 8000 white blood cells, then the normal absolute monocytes range is between 80 and 800.

What type of cells are monocytes? ›

Monocytes are mononuclear cells and the ellipsoidal nucleus is often lobulated/indented, causing a bean-shaped or kidney-shaped appearance. Monocytes compose 2% to 10% of all leukocytes in the human body.

What is the main function of monocytes? ›

Monocytes are a critical component of the innate immune system. They are the source of many other vital elements of the immune system, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. Monocytes play a role in both the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes that take place during an immune response.

What is a characteristic of monocytes? ›

Monocytes have one large nucleus, which is usually centrally placed within the cell and often kidney shaped (reniform). This nucleus has a stranded appearance, like a skein of wool, and when stained, is a pale violet colour.

What is the function of monocytes in the body? ›

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell (leukocytes) that reside in your blood and tissues to find and destroy germs (viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa) and eliminate infected cells. Monocytes call on other white blood cells to help treat injury and prevent infection.

What level of monocytes indicate leukemia? ›

A common sign of CMML is a high number of monocytes, greater than 1,000 per microliter. Other signs include low numbers of other white blood cells, red blood cells, and blood platelets.

Do monocytes increase in Covid? ›

Furthermore, increased proliferation of monocytes derived from patients with severe COVID-19 after in vitro challenge with lipopolysaccharide was discussed as an indicator for a release of immature myeloid cells from the bone marrow reminiscent of emergency myelopoiesis (137) and contributing to innate immune ...

Can allergies cause high monocytes? ›

We conclude that patients with severe allergic disorders have a significant increase of peripheral blood monocytes with Fc receptors for IgE, which suggests that these cells may participate in the pathophysiology of atopic disease.

Can chemo cause monocytosis? ›

Reactive Causes

Transient causes: Monocytosis can been seen in a patient with recovering bone marrow after cytotoxic chemotherapy [14].

Can arthritis cause high monocytes? ›

Monocyte activation is elevated in women with knee-osteoarthritis and associated with inflammation, BMI and pain. Osteoarthritis Cartilage.

What is the cause of low monocytes? ›

Monocytes help get rid of dead or damaged tissue and regulate your body's immune response. Infections, cancer, autoimmune diseases and other conditions can cause an increased number of monocytes. A decreased number can be the result of toxins, chemotherapy and other causes.

How do you treat high monocytes naturally? ›

You can lower your monocytes and inflammation by keeping your weight in check, exercising regularly, and following a Mediterranean-like diet.

What are symptoms of low monocytes? ›

Your symptoms can be caused by your low monocyte count or by other blood cell abnormalities, such as leukopenia (low white blood cells) or anemia (low numbers of healthy red blood cells).
...
Effects of Monocytopenia
  • Lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes)3.
  • Fevers.
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
  • Swelling, pain, or discomfort.
29 Aug 2022

Does EBV cause monocytosis? ›

It spreads primarily through saliva. EBV can cause infectious mononucleosis, also called mono, and other illnesses. Most people will get infected with EBV in their lifetime and will not have any symptoms. Mono caused by EBV is most common among teens and adults.

Can thyroid cause high monocytes? ›

The frequency of CD14+ monocytes and CD14+ CD16+ monocytes were significantly higher in GD thyroid tissue than in normal thyroid tissue (both P < 0.001).

Can lymphoma cause high monocytes? ›

Peripheral monocytes, which migrate to cancer tissue and differentiate into tumor-associated macrophages, are increased in a variety of malignancies, including lymphoma.

What are monocytes in blood test? ›

Takeaway. Absolute monocytes are a measurement of a particular type of white blood cell. Monocytes are helpful at fighting infections and diseases, such as cancer. Getting your absolute monocyte levels checked as part of a routine blood test is one way to monitor the health of your immune system and your blood.

How do you treat low monocytes? ›

The best way to increase your monocyte count is to boost your immune health by living a healthy lifestyle: quit smoking, minimize stress, exercise regularly, eat lots of fruits/vegetables, get a good night's sleep, and avoid infections by washing your hands frequently.

What does it mean if your lymphocytes and monocytes are high? ›

Monocytes: High levels of monocytes may indicate the presence of chronic infection, an autoimmune or blood disorder, cancer, or other medical conditions. Lymphocytes: If there is an elevation in the level of lymphocytes, the condition is known as lymphocytic leukocytosis.

Do monocytes fluctuate? ›

Borderline or relative elevations in the monocyte count are common in MDS, and monocytes may fluctuate over time but they are not a persistent feature.

Can alcohol cause high monocytes? ›

In chronic excessive alcohol abuse, the numbers of classical monocytes are significantly reduced, whereas the non-classical monocytes display an increase in their counts, while the changes particularly restore two weeks following alcohol withdrawal (17).

Are there any early detection signs of leukemia? ›

Persistent fatigue, weakness. Frequent or severe infections. Losing weight without trying. Swollen lymph nodes, enlarged liver or spleen.

What is an alarming white blood cell count? ›

How many white blood cells (WBCs) someone has varies, but the normal range is usually between 4,000 and 11,000 per microliter of blood. A blood test that shows a WBC count of less than 4,000 per microliter (some labs say less than 4,500) could mean your body may not be able to fight infection the way it should.

What happen if white blood cells are high? ›

Produced in your bone marrow, they defend your body against infections and disease. But, when there are too many white blood cells, it usually means you have infection or inflammation in your body. Less commonly, a high white blood cell count could indicate certain blood cancers or bone marrow disorders.

How are you tested for leukemia? ›

Blood tests.

By looking at a sample of your blood, your doctor can determine if you have abnormal levels of red or white blood cells or platelets — which may suggest leukemia. A blood test may also show the presence of leukemia cells, though not all types of leukemia cause the leukemia cells to circulate in the blood.

How do monocytes develop? ›

Monocytes originate in the bone marrow from pluripotent stem cells; their direct precursor cell is the promonocyte that derives from the monoblast. After monocytes are formed by division of promonocytes, they remain only a very short time (less than a day) in the bone marrow compartment.

What is the lifespan of monocytes? ›

We found that classical monocytes have a very short circulating lifespan (mean 1.0 ± 0.26 d). Most cells leave the circulation or die, whereas the remaining cells transition to intermediate monocytes. Intermediate monocytes have a longer lifespan (mean 4.3 ± 0.36 d) and all transition to nonclassical monocytes.

Can stress increase monocytes? ›

Acute stress increases monocyte levels and modulates receptor expression in healthy females.

How do monocytes protect the body? ›

Monocytes are bone marrow derived leukocytes that circulate in the blood and spleen. They are characterized by their ability to recognize “danger signals” via pattern recognition receptors. Monocytes can phagocytose and present antigens, secrete chemokines, and proliferate in response to infection and injury.

Do monocytes cause inflammation? ›

They produce effector molecules such as cytokines, myeloperoxidase and superoxide, and initiate inflammation [1]. Inflammatory monocytes selectively traffic to the sites of inflammation, produce inflammatory cytokines and contribute to local and systemic inflammation [2].

How many monocytes are there? ›

In monocytopenia, the number of monocytes circulating in the blood is decreased to less than 0.2×109/L in adults. Monocytopenia itself does not appear to produce symptoms, and patients usually only show symptoms related to an associated condition. Such symptoms may include fatigue and fever [20, 57].

What color are monocytes? ›

Monocytes have abundant blue-gray cytoplasm containing many fine lilac granules. These give the cytoplasm a "ground glass" appearance.

Where are monocytes found? ›

Monocytes (Fig. 1A) circulate in the blood, bone marrow, and spleen and do not proliferate in a steady state (3, 4). Monocytes represent immune effector cells, equipped with chemokine receptors and pathogen recognition receptors that mediate migration from blood to tissues during infection.

What is the structure of monocytes? ›

Structure of Monocytes

Monocytes are the largest cells in the peripheral blood, with the diameter ranging between 14-20 µm in diameter. The morphological features of the cells include an irregular cell shape, an oval or kidney-shaped nucleus, cytoplasmic vesicles, and a high nucleus to cytoplasm ratio (3:1).

Do monocytes produce antibodies? ›

Answer and Explanation: Monocytes do not produce antibodies nor do the macrophages and dendritic cells they transform into produce antibodies.

Does monocytosis mean leukemia? ›

A high monocyte count — also called monocytosis — is often associated with chronic or sub-acute infections. It can also be linked with some types of cancer, especially leukemia. A high monocyte count can occur when you are recovering from an acute infection.

What level of monocytes indicate leukemia? ›

A common sign of CMML is a high number of monocytes, greater than 1,000 per microliter. Other signs include low numbers of other white blood cells, red blood cells, and blood platelets.

What viruses cause high monocytes? ›

The following are some of the conditions that may be risk factors for elevated monocyte levels:
  • viral infections, such as infectious mononucleosis, mumps, and measles.
  • parasitic infections.
  • bacterial infections, including tuberculosis (TB)
  • chronic inflammatory disease.

How do you treat high monocytes naturally? ›

You can lower your monocytes and inflammation by keeping your weight in check, exercising regularly, and following a Mediterranean-like diet.

What cancers cause high monocytes? ›

The most common sign of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is having too many monocytes (seen on a blood test). Having too many monocytes also causes many of the symptoms of CMML. These monocytes can settle in the spleen or liver, enlarging these organs.

Do viral infections cause monocytosis? ›

Monocytosis is occasionally a sign of an acute bacterial, viral, protozoal, or rickettsial infection and may also occur in some forms of chronic neutropenia and postsplenectomy states. Chronic inflammatory conditions can stimulate sustained monocytosis, as can preleukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, and lymphomas.

Do monocytes increase in Covid? ›

Furthermore, increased proliferation of monocytes derived from patients with severe COVID-19 after in vitro challenge with lipopolysaccharide was discussed as an indicator for a release of immature myeloid cells from the bone marrow reminiscent of emergency myelopoiesis (137) and contributing to innate immune ...

Can thyroid cause high monocytes? ›

The frequency of CD14+ monocytes and CD14+ CD16+ monocytes were significantly higher in GD thyroid tissue than in normal thyroid tissue (both P < 0.001).

How do you treat high monocytes? ›

Treatment to reduce your high monocyte count includes:
  1. Avoiding foods that cause inflammation like red meats, refined carbohydrates and fried foods.
  2. Exercising regularly.
  3. Limiting alcohol consumption.
  4. Managing current medical conditions.
  5. Treating infections with medications where medically appropriate.
28 Nov 2021

What cancers cause low monocytes? ›

Cancers that invade the bone marrow, such as chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML), or diseases that affect bone marrow function, can also cause a low monocyte count.

What percentage of monocytes is normal? ›

Normal Results

The different types of white blood cells are given as a percentage: Neutrophils: 40% to 60% Lymphocytes: 20% to 40% Monocytes: 2% to 8%

Can allergies cause high monocytes? ›

We conclude that patients with severe allergic disorders have a significant increase of peripheral blood monocytes with Fc receptors for IgE, which suggests that these cells may participate in the pathophysiology of atopic disease.

What are monocytes in blood test? ›

Takeaway. Absolute monocytes are a measurement of a particular type of white blood cell. Monocytes are helpful at fighting infections and diseases, such as cancer. Getting your absolute monocyte levels checked as part of a routine blood test is one way to monitor the health of your immune system and your blood.

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