Hand & Wrist Examination - OSCE Guide | Geeky Medics (2023)

Hand and wrist examination frequently appear in OSCEs and you’ll be expected to identify the relevant clinical signs using your examination skills. This hand and wrist examination OSCE guide provides a clear step-by-step approach to examining the hand and wrist, with an included video demonstration. The hand and wrist examination can be broken down into five key components: look, feel, move, function and special tests. This can be helpful as an aide-memoire if you begin to feel like you’ve lost your way during an OSCE.

Download the hand and wrist examination PDF OSCE checklist, or use our interactive OSCE checklist. To learn more about the anatomy of the hand, check out our bones of the hand guide.


Wash your hands and don PPE if appropriate.

Introduce yourself to the patient including your name and role.

Confirm the patient’s name and date of birth.

Briefly explain what the examination will involve using patient-friendly language: “Today I’m going to examine the bones of your hands and wrists. The examination will involve me first looking at the hands, then feeling the joints and finally asking you to do some movements.”

Gain consent to proceed with the examination.

Adequatelyexposethepatient’s hands, wrist and elbows.

Position the patient seated with their hands on a pillow.

Ask the patient if they have any pain before proceeding with the clinical examination.

You might also be interested in our OSCE Flashcard Collection which contains over 2000 flashcards that cover clinical examination, procedures, communication skills and data interpretation.


General inspection

Clinical signs

Perform a brief general inspection of the patient, looking for signs suggestive of underlying pathology:

  • Scars: may provide clues regarding previous upper limb surgery.
  • Wasting of muscles: suggestive of disuse atrophy secondary to joint pathology or a lower motor neuron lesion.

Objects or equipment

Look forobjectsorequipmenton or around the patient that may provide useful insights into their medical history and current clinical status:

  • Aids and adaptations: splints are often used to manage hand and wrist pathology.
  • Prescriptions:prescribing charts or personal prescriptions can provide useful information about the patient’s recent medications (e.g. analgesia).

Close inspection of the hand

Dorsal aspect of the hand

With the patient’s palms facing down, inspect the dorsum of each hand for signs suggestive of underlying pathology:

  • Hand posture: note any abnormalities of hand posture which may indicate underlying pathology (e.g. Dupuytren’s contracture, ulnar deviation secondary to rheumatoid arthritis).
  • Scars: inspect for evidence of scars which may indicate previous surgery or trauma.
  • Swelling: note any areas of swelling, by comparing the hands and the wrists.
  • Skin colour: erythema of the soft tissue may indicate cellulitis or joint sepsis
  • Bouchard’s nodes: occur at the proximal interphalangeal joints (PIPJ) and are associated with osteoarthritis.
  • Heberden’s nodes: occur at the distal interphalangeal joints (DIPJ) and are associated with osteoarthritis.
  • Swan neck deformity: occurs at the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) with clinical features including DIPJ flexion with PIPJ hyperextension. Swan neck deformity is typically associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Z-thumb: hyperextension of the interphalangeal joint, in addition to fixed flexion and subluxation of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ). Z-thumb is associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Boutonnières deformity: PIPJ flexion with DIPJ hyperextension associated with rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Skin thinning or bruising: can be associated with long-term steroid use (e.g. common in patients with active inflammatory arthritis).
  • Psoriatic plaques: salmon coloured plaques with a silvery scale. Patients who have psoriasis are at significantly increased risk of developing psoriatic arthritis.
  • Muscle wasting: can occur secondary to chronic joint pathology or lower motor neuron lesions (e.g. median nerve damage secondary to carpal tunnel syndrome).
  • Splinter haemorrhages:a longitudinal, red-brown haemorrhage under a nail that looks like a wood splinter. Causes include local trauma, infective endocarditis, sepsis, vasculitis and psoriatic nail disease.
  • Nail pitting and onycholysis: associated with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

Palmar aspect of the hand

With the patient’s palms facing up, inspect each hand for signs suggestive of underlying pathology:

  • Hand posture: note any evidence of abnormal hand posture (e.g. clawed hand secondary to Dupuytren’s contracture).
  • Scars: inspect for evidence of scars which may indicate previous surgery or trauma (e.g. carpal tunnel surgery).
  • Swelling: note any areas of swelling, by comparing the hands and the wrists.
  • Dupuytren’s contractureinvolvesthickeningof thepalmar fascia, resulting in the development of cords of palmar fascia which eventually cause contracture deformities of the fingers and thumb.
  • Thenar/hypothenar wasting: isolated wasting of the thenar eminence is suggestive of median nerve damage (e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome).
  • Elbows: inspect for evidence of psoriatic plaques or rheumatoid nodules.
  • Janeway lesions: non-tender, haemorrhagic lesions that occur on the thenar and hypothenar eminences of the palms (and soles). Janeway lesions are typically associated with infective endocarditis.
  • Osler’s nodes: red-purple, slightly raised, tender lumps, often with a pale centre, typically found on the fingers or toes. They are typically associated with infective endocarditis.
  • Inspect the dorsum of the hand

    Types of arthritis

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and is characterised by joint pain worsened with activity, localised loss of cartilage, remodelling of adjacent bone and associated inflammation. Typical findings in the hands include swellings at the distal interphalangeal joints (Heberden’s nodes) and proximal interphalangeal joints (Bouchard’s nodes) which represent osteophyte formation. There is often associated crepitus and reduced range of joint movement.

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterised by inflammation of the synovial joints, periarticular tissue destruction and a variety of extra-articular features (e.g. rheumatoid nodules, scleritis, nail fold infarcts and peripheral nerve entrapment). Patients typically experience joint pain (present even at rest), joint swelling and morning joint stiffness. Typical findings in the hands include symmetrical joint inflammation typically affecting the proximal interphalangeal joints, metacarpophalangeal joints and wrist joints. Other features of RA in the hands include muscle wasting, ulnar deviation, swan neck deformity, Boutonnière’s deformity and Z-thumb deformity.

    Psoriatic arthritis is an autoimmune disease associated with psoriasis that is characterised by inflammation of the joints and the surrounding tendons. Typical clinical features in the hands include joint swelling, joint pain and dactylitis (swelling of whole digits).


    Palms up


    Assess and compare the temperature of the joints of the hand and elbow using the back of your hands.

    Increased temperature of a joint, particularly if also associated with swelling and tenderness may indicate septic arthritis or inflammatory arthritis.

    (Video) Hand and Wrist Examination - OSCE Guide (New Version)

    Radial and ulnar pulse

    Palpate the radial and ulnar pulse to confirm adequate blood supply to the hand.

    Thenar and hypothenar eminence bulk

    Palpate the muscle bulk of the thenar and hypothenar eminences: wasting can be caused by disuse atrophy as well as lower motor neuron lesions (e.g. ulnar and median nerve).

    Palmar thickening

    Support the patient’s hand and palpate the palm to detect the typical bands of thickened palmar fascia associated with Dupuytren’s contracture.

    Median and ulnar nerve sensation

    1. Assess median nerve sensation over the thenar eminence and index finger.

    2. Assess ulnar nerve sensation over the hypothenar eminence and little finger.

    Palms down (dorsum)

    Radial nerve sensation

    Assess radial nerve sensation over the first dorsal webspace.


    Assess and compare the temperature of the joints on the dorsal aspect of the hand (e.g. metacarpophalangeal joints) and elbow using the back of your hands.

    Metacarpophalangeal joint squeeze

    Gently squeeze across the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints and observe for verbal and non-verbal signs of discomfort. Tenderness is suggestive of active inflammatory arthropathy.

    Bimanual joint palpation

    Bimanually palpate the joints of the hand, assessing and comparing for tenderness, irregularities and warmth:

    • Metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ)
    • Proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ)
    • Distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ)
    • Carpometacarpal joint (CMCJ) of the thumb (squaring of the joint is associated with OA)

    Anatomical snuffbox

    Palpate the anatomical snuffbox for tenderness which is suggestive of a scaphoid fracture.

    Bimanual wrist palpation

    Palpate the wrists for evidence of joint line irregularities or tenderness.


    Elbow palpation

    Palpate the patient’s arm along the ulnar border to the elbow and note any tenderness, rheumatoid nodules or psoriatic plaques.

    • Assess radial nerve sensation

    Scaphoid fracture

    The scaphoid is the largest bone in the proximal row of carpal bones and is also the most commonly fractured. It often occurs due to a fall on an outstretched hand. As a result of the poor blood supply to the scaphoid, fractures can be slow to heal and avascular necrosis of the proximal fragment of the scaphoid can occur. Tenderness in the anatomical snuffbox is highly suggestive of a scaphoid fracture.


    The joints of the hand and wristshould be assessed and compared.

    If the patient is known to have an issue with a particular hand, you should assess the ‘normal’ hand first for comparison.

    Active movement

    Active movement refers to a movement performed independently by the patient. Ask the patient to carry out a sequence of active movements to assess the function of various joints. As the patient performs each movement, note any restrictions in the range of the joint’s movement and also look for signs of discomfort.

    It’s important to clearly explain and demonstrate each movement you expect the patient to perform to aid understanding.

    (Video) Hand Examination - OSCE Guide (Old Version)

    Finger extension

    Instructions:“Open your fist and splay your fingers.”

    Finger flexion

    Instructions:“Make a fist.”

    Wrist extension

    Normal range of movement: 90º

    Instructions:“Put the palms of your hands together and extend your wrists fully.”

    Wrist flexion

    Normal range of movement: 90º

    Instructions:“Put the backs of your hands together and flex your wrists fully.”

    Passive movement

    Passive movement refers to a movement of the patient, controlled by the examiner. This involves the patient relaxing and allowing you to move the joint freely to assess the full range of joint movement. It’s important to feel for crepitus as you move the joint (which can be associated with osteoarthritis) and observe any discomfort or restriction in the joint’s range of movement.

    If abnormalities are noted on active movements (e.g. restricted range of movement), assess joint movements passively.

    Ask the patient to fully relax and allow you to move their hand and wrist for them.

    Warn them that should they experience any pain they shouldlet you know immediately.

    Repeat the above movements passively, feeling for any crepitus during the movement of the joint.

    • Active finger flexion

    Motor assessment

    The following screening test will allow you to quickly assess the motor function of the radial, ulnar and median nerve.

    Wrist and finger extension against resistance

    Nerve assessed: radial nerve

    Muscles assessed:extensors of the wrist and fingers


    1.Ask the patient to hold their arms out in front of them with their palms facing downwards –“Hold your arms out in front of you, with your palms facing the ground.”

    2.Ask the patient to extend their fingers and wrist joints, keeping their hands in this position whilst you apply resistance – “Extend your fingers out in front of you, cock your wrists back and don’t let me pull them downwards.”

    Index finger ABduction against resistance

    Nerve assessed: ulnar nerve

    Muscles assessed: first dorsal interosseous (FDI)


    1. Ask the patient to splay their fingers and stop you from pushing their fingers together – “Splay your fingers outwards and don’t let me push them together.”

    2.Apply resistance to the patient’s index finger using your own index finger to assess abduction.

    Thumb ABduction against resistance

    Nerve assessed: median nerve

    (Video) Elbow Examination - OSCE Guide

    Muscle assessed:abductor pollicis brevis

    Instructions:Ask the patient to turn their hand over so their palm is facing upwards and to position their thumb over the midline of the palm. Advise them to keep it in this position whilst you apply downward resistance with your own thumb – “Point your thumbs to the ceiling and don’t let me push them down.”

    • Finger extension against resistance (radial nerve)


    Assess the patient’s hand function using the fine motor screening tests below.

    Power grip

    Instructions: “Squeeze my fingers with your hands.”

    Pincer grip

    Instructions: “Squeeze my finger between your thumb and index finger.”

    Pick up a small object

    Instructions: “Could you please pick up the coin off the table.”

    • Power grip

    Special tests

    Tinel’s test

    Tinel’s test is used to identify median nerve compression and can be useful in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    To perform the test, simply tap over the carpal tunnel with your finger.


    If the patient develops tingling in the thumb and radial two and a half fingers this is suggestive of median nerve compression.

    • Tinel's test

    Phalen’s test

    If the history or examination findings are suggestive of carpal tunnel syndrome, Phalen’s test may be used to further support the diagnosis.

    Ask the patient to hold their wrist in maximum forced flexion (pushing the dorsal surfaces of both hands together) for 60 seconds.


    If the patient’s symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome are reproduced then the test is positive (e.g burning, tingling or numb sensation in the thumb, index, middle and ring fingers).

    • Phalen's test

    (Video) Shoulder Examination - OSCE Guide (new)
    Carpal tunnel syndrome

    Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs as a result of compression of the median nerve as it traverses through the wrist via the carpal tunnel. Typical clinical features include pain and paraesthesia in the distribution of the median nerve (index finger, thumb and lateral half of the ring finger). Grip weakness can also develop secondary to wasting of the thenar muscles which receive motor innervation from the median nerve.

    To complete the examination…

    Explain to the patient that the examination is now finished.

    Thank the patient for their time.

    Dispose of PPE appropriately and wash your hands.

    Summarise your findings.

    Example summary

    “Today I examined Mrs Smith, a 32-year-old female. On general inspection, the patient appeared comfortable at rest, with no stigmata of musculoskeletal disease. There were no objects or medical equipment around the bed of relevance.

    “Assessment of the hands and wrists revealed a normal appearance with no tenderness on palpation. The range of movement of the joints in both hands was normal. There was no evidence of weakness or sensory disturbance in the hands. “

    “In summary, these findings are consistent with a normalhand and wristexamination.”

    “For completeness, I would like to perform the following further assessments and investigations.”

    Further assessments and investigations

    • Neurovascular examination of the upper limbs.
    • Examination of the elbow joint and shoulder joint.
    • Further imaging if indicated (e.g. X-ray and MRI).


    Mr TejasYarashi

    Consultant Trauma & Orthopaedic Surgeon


    1. James Heilman, MD. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Rheumatoid arthritis chronic changes. Licence:CC BY-SA.

    2. David Jones. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Rheumatoid arthritis. Licence: CC BY 2.0.

    3. Davplast. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Bouchard’s nodes. Licence: CC BY-SA.

    4. Drahreg01. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Heberden’s nodes. Licence: CC BY-SA.

    5. Phoenix119. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Swan neck deformity. Licence: CC BY-SA.

    6. Alborz Fallah. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Boutonnière deformity. Licence: CC BY-SA.

    7. James Heilman, MD. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Psoriasis plaque. Licence:CC BY-SA.

    8. Hare, H. A. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Dorsal hand muscle wasting.

    9. Splarka. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Splinter haemorrhage.

    10. CopperKettle. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Onycholysis. Licence: CC BY-SA.

    11. Frank C. Müller. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Dupuytren’s. Licence:CC BY-SA.

      (Video) Knee Joint Examination - OSCE Guide (new)

    12. HenrykGerlach. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Carpal tunnel scars. Licence: CC BY-SA.

    13. Starr, M. Allen. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Hypothenar wasting.

    14. GEMalone. Adapted by Geeky Medics. Ganglion. Licence:CC BY.


    How do you examine your wrists? ›

    And turn your palms right down that's forearm pronation and supination at the wrist we also have

    How do you perform a hand exam? ›

    Test range of motion of the entire ham by having the patient clenched her fist and then open her

    How do you test motor hand function? ›

    In summary, to test the finger extensors:
    1. Abduct the thumb, then place on table and lift thumb off.
    2. Extend fingers against resistance at MCP.
    3. Make fist and extend wrist against resistance.
    4. Ulnar deviate fist.
    5. Extend index finger from closed fist.
    6. Extend small finger from closed fist.
    16 Apr 2018

    How do you measure your hand muscles? ›

    And you look at the back of the hands. And you look for muscle wasting. And you look for scoop. And

    What are the special methods for examination of wrist joint? ›

    • The physical examination of the wrist should include a standardized exam approach as well as a series of special tests to help diagnose the cause of the patients wrist pain. ...
    • Finkelstein's Test. ...
    • TFCC Stress Test. ...
    • Sharpey's Test. ...
    • Tinel's Test. ...
    • Durkan's Test.
    22 May 2022

    How do you measure wrist stability? ›

    MC / Midcarpal Test | Wrist Instability - YouTube

    What fingers can tell you about your health? ›

    "Red palms can indicate liver disease. Knobbly knuckles, especially on the lower finger joints, can indicate that a patient has rheumatoid arthritis, and the colour of the creases in the hand, as well as the redness behind the finger nail, can indicate whether someone is anaemic."

    How do you self diagnose a wrist injury? ›

    bend your wrist forward for 60 seconds to see if numbness or tingling develops. tap the area over the median nerve to see if pain occurs. test the strength of your wrist and fingers. order X-rays of your wrist to evaluate the bones and joints.

    Where does the wrist begin? ›

    It starts at the ulnar styloid, the small bump on the edge of the wrist (on the side away from the thumb) where the ulna meets the wrist joint.

    What is wrist drop caused by? ›

    Wrist drop is a disorder caused by radial nerve palsy. Because of the radial nerve's innervation of the extensor muscles of the wrist and digits, those whose radial nerve function has been compromised cannot actively extend them.

    What is claw hand? ›

    Claw hand is a condition that causes curved or bent fingers. This makes the hand appear like the claw of an animal. Claw hand is a hand characterized by curved or bent fingers, making the hand appear claw-like.

    How do you measure hand coordination? ›

    How to Test Hand-Eye Coordination - YouTube

    What are the five intrinsic muscles of the hand? ›

    • Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand.
    • Thenar Muscles:
    • Abductor pollicis brevis (APB)
    • Flexor pollicis brevis (FBB)
    • Opponens pollicis (OPP)
    • Intrinsic Thumb Adduction Component:
    • Adductor pollicis.
    • Hypothenar Muscles:
    25 Jul 2022

    What is the hand muscle called? ›

    Interossei (dorsal and palmar)

    The interossei muscles begin between the bones of the hand. There are four dorsal and three palmar interossei muscles. While all interossei bend the MCP joints, the dorsal interossei allow us to spread our fingers away from each other. The palmar interossei pull our fingers together.

    What are the types of hand injuries? ›

    There are many different types of hand conditions and injuries, including:
    • Broken/fractured hand.
    • Broken finger.
    • Carpal tunnel.
    • Ganglion cysts.
    • Trigger finger/thumb.
    • Osteoarthritis.
    • Tendinitis.

    How do you test radial nerve in hand? ›

    Median, Ulna and Radial nerve tests - YouTube

    What is tinel's? ›

    Tinel's sign is a tingling or “pins and needles” feeling you get when your healthcare provider taps your skin over a nerve. Tinel's sign may be an indicator that you have nerve compression or damage where they're tapping.

    What does reverse Phalen's test for? ›

    Purpose: To assess for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Test Position: Sitting or standing.

    How do you treat an unstable wrist? ›

    A wrist brace can be placed in neutral and ulnar deviation. NSAID and splinting is the primary treatment option for acute ligamentous injuries. Isometric strengthening exercise of flexor carpi ulnaris and extensor carpi ulnaris is done.

    What causes wrist instability? ›

    Wrist instability occurs when one or more of the wrist ligaments have lost their integrity, are lax, or damaged. The common main ligaments in the wrist are the scaphoid-lunate (SL) ligament and the triangulo-fibrocartilage complex (TFCC).

    What is normal wrist flexion and extension? ›

    Results: Normal values for wrist ROM are 73 degrees of flexion, 71 degrees of extension, 19 degrees of radial deviation, 33 degrees of ulnar deviation, 140 degrees of supination, and 60 degrees of pronation.

    Why do doctors squeeze your fingers? ›

    It is used to monitor dehydration and the amount of blood flow to tissue.

    Why do doctors ask you to squeeze their fingers? ›

    This test is used to determine whether your fingers or thumbs flex involuntarily in response to certain triggers. The way that your fingers or thumbs react may be a sign of an underlying condition affecting your central nervous system.

    What does it mean if your ring finger is longer than your index finger on a woman? ›

    Research suggests that having a longer ring finger compared to index finger reflects greater exposure to male hormones during an individual's time in their mother's womb. There are differences between and within sexes in finger lengths associated with relatively more masculine versus feminine development.

    What are the types of wrist injuries? ›

    Common wrist conditions and injuries include:
    • Arthritis.
    • Bone dislocation.
    • Broken wrist.
    • Carpal tunnel syndrome, compression of the median nerve in the wrist.
    • Ganglion cyst, fluid-filled lumps along tendons or joints.
    • Pseudogout, a type of arthritis.
    • Sprains and strains.
    • Tendonitis.

    What is the most common wrist fracture? ›

    The distal radius fracture is one of the most common fractures of the wrist. It usually occurs when people fall on an outstretched hand. A broken wrist is a break or crack in one or more of the bones of your wrist.

    What is the most common cause of wrist pain? ›

    Wrist pain is often caused by sprains or fractures from sudden injuries. But wrist pain can also result from long-term problems, such as repetitive stress, arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome.

    What are the 8 bones in the wrist called? ›

    Your wrist is made up of eight small bones (carpal bones) plus two long bones in your forearm — the radius and the ulna. Each finger consists of one hand bone (metacarpal) and three finger bones (phalanges), while each thumb consists of one metacarpal bone and two phalanges.

    What vein is in your wrist? ›

    The cephalic vein originates at the radial aspect of the wrist traversing the radial border of the forearm. It receives tributaries from both the ventral and dorsal surfaces.

    Which nerve is affected in wrist drop? ›

    Wrist drop is caused by damage to the radial nerve, which travels down the arm and controls the movement of the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm, because of several conditions.

    What nerve controls the wrist? ›

    The radial nerve travels down the arm and supplies movement to the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. It also provides extension to the wrist, and helps in movement and sensation of the wrist and hand.

    What is Klumpke's palsy? ›

    Klumpke's palsy, or Klumpke's paralysis, is a form of brachial plexus palsy – a paralysis of the arm due to an injury of the network of spinal nerves that originates in the back of the neck, extends through the shoulder and armpit and gives rise to nerves in the arm.

    What is finger drop? ›

    The “finger drop sign” consists of predominant finger extensor weakness at PIP and DIP joints in the presence of relatively normal power in finger flexion, wrist flexion and wrist extension.

    What are the 4th and 5th fingers? ›

    The ulnar nerve is also responsible for sensation in the fourth and fifth fingers (ring and little fingers) of the hand, part of the palm and the underside of the forearm.

    Which nerve is injured in claw hand? ›

    Claw hand is usually caused by damage to your ulnar nerve, which controls muscles in your ring and pinkie fingers. If your ulnar nerve is damaged, the muscles it controls don't get some or all of the electrical signals that tell them to straighten.

    What is the two hand test? ›

    OVERVIEW. The test 2HAND reliably assesses the eye to hand and hand to hand coordination. The layout of the track makes a comparison of the coordination performance possible for simple and more demanding tasks.

    What is poor hand dexterity? ›

    Loss of Dexterity

    You might have difficulty with activities such picking things up, maintaining a hold on items, have difficulty writing or buttoning clothing, or have trouble controlling eating utensils. It may be even be painful to do so.

    What are the types of dexterity? ›

    There are two types of Dexterity- Gross motor skills and Fine motor skills.

    How do you test for median nerve? ›

    Carpal Compression Test (Apply pressure with thumbs over the median nerve within the carpal tunnel, located just distal to the wrist crease. The test is positive if the patient responds with numbness and tingling within 30 seconds.)

    How do you examine your thumb? ›

    Hand examination; Thumb Flexion FPL - YouTube

    What is the test for de Quervain's tenosynovitis? ›

    Tests. You may be asked to perform a Finkelstein test, in which you bend your thumb across the palm of your hand and bend your fingers down over your thumb. Then you bend your wrist toward your little finger. If this causes pain on the thumb side of your wrist, you likely have de Quervain tenosynovitis.

    What is scaphoid fracture? ›

    A scaphoid (navicular) fracture is a break in one of the small bones of the wrist. This type of fracture occurs most often after a fall onto an outstretched hand. Symptoms of a scaphoid fracture typically include pain and tenderness in the area just below the base of the thumb.

    What nerve controls wrist flexion? ›

    In the forearm, the median nerve supplies almost all the flexor muscles and all the pronator muscles of the forearm with nerves. Its function allows the wrist and fingers to bend.

    What is wrist drop caused by? ›

    Wrist drop is a disorder caused by radial nerve palsy. Because of the radial nerve's innervation of the extensor muscles of the wrist and digits, those whose radial nerve function has been compromised cannot actively extend them.

    What is claw hand? ›

    Claw hand is a condition that causes curved or bent fingers. This makes the hand appear like the claw of an animal. Claw hand is a hand characterized by curved or bent fingers, making the hand appear claw-like.

    Why do doctors squeeze your fingers? ›

    It is used to monitor dehydration and the amount of blood flow to tissue.

    What is a positive grind test? ›

    To perform the grind test, the examiner applies axial compression along the plane of the thumb metacarpal and simultaneously rotates the thumb metacarpal base (Figure 1). The test is positive if it reproduces pain in the joint.

    How do you palpate a CMC joint? ›

    CMC Grind Test-Thumb - YouTube

    What is positive Finkelstein test? ›

    This test is positive if the patient reports pain aggravation at the tip of the radial styloid process. If this step does not elicit pain, the examiner can gently apply an ulnar deviation force to the hand which results in an increased passive stretch across the first dorsal compartment.

    What is wrist hyperflexion? ›

    A wrist hyperextension injury is a wrist sprain that typically occurs when a person falls on an outstretched hand. In this case, all it takes is a loss of balance and once your hand hits the ground, the force of impact bends your wrist back toward your forearm.

    What is eichhoff's test? ›

    Finkelstein's test is commonly confused with Eichhoff's test: the Eichhoff's test is typically described as the examiner grasping and ulnar deviating the hand when the person has their thumb held within their fist. If sharp pain occurs along the distal radius, Quervain's tenosynovitis is suspected.

    What is Bennett fracture? ›

    Bennett fracture is the most common fracture involving the base of the thumb. This fracture refers to an intraarticular fracture that separates the palmar ulnar aspect of the first metacarpal base from the remaining first metacarpal.

    What is the most common wrist fracture? ›

    The distal radius fracture is one of the most common fractures of the wrist. It usually occurs when people fall on an outstretched hand. A broken wrist is a break or crack in one or more of the bones of your wrist.

    What are the different types of wrist fractures? ›

    Common wrist fractures
    • Colles' fracture (distal radius with dorsal displacement of fragments).
    • Smith's fracture (distal radius with volar displacement of fragments).
    • Scaphoid fracture.
    • Barton's fracture (fracture dislocation of the radiocarpal joint).
    • Chauffeur's fracture (fracture of the radial styloid).
    27 Apr 2022


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