Diabetes occurs in many types beyond type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. One of these is Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adulthood (LADA). Some patients receive the diagnosis of type 2 diabetic, despite not exhibiting all the classic symptoms associated wi (2022)

LADA stands for Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adulthood. LADA is a form of type 1 diabetes that develops later into adulthood.

LADA tends to develop more slowly than type 1 diabetes in childhood and, because LADA can sometimes appear similar to type 2 diabetes, doctors may mistakenly diagnose LADA as type 2 diabetes.

The definition provided by Prof. David Leslie, Principle Investigator of Action LADA, is that in Europe:

LADA is defined as initially non-insulin requiring diabetes diagnosed in people aged 30-50 years with antibodies to GAD – glutamic acid decarboxylase.

How does LADA compare with other diabetes types?

LADA is sometimes referred to as type 1.5 diabetes. This is not an official term but it does illustrate the fact that LADA is a form of type 1 diabetes that shares some characteristics with type 2 diabetes.

As a form of type 1 diabetes, LADA is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks and kills off insulin producing cells.

The reasons why LADA can often be mistaken for type 2 diabetes is it develops over a longer period of time than type 1 diabetes in children or younger adults.

Whereas type 1 diabetes in children tends to develop quickly, sometimes within the space of days, LADA develops more slowly, sometimes over a period of years.

The slower onset of diabetes symptoms being presented in people over 35 years may lead a GP to initially diagnose a case of LADA as type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms of LADA

The first symptoms of LADA include:

  • Feeling tired all the time or regularly tired after meals
  • Foggy headedness
  • Experiencing hunger soon after meals

As LADA develops, a person’s ability to produce insulin will gradually decrease and this may lead to symptoms such as:

  • A hard to quench thirst
  • Needing to frequently urinate
  • Blurred vision
  • Tingling nerves

It is important to catch the symptoms at the earliest stage because diagnosis of LADA at a later stage increases the risk of developing diabetes complications.

(Video) Diabetes LADA - Latent Autoimmune Diabetes

Having tingling nerves can be a sign of neuropathy (nerve disease) so if this symptom is appearing regularly, especially if in addition to other symptoms listed above, it is advisable to see a doctor.

How common is LADA?

According to the UK Prospective Diabetes Study found that antibodies specific to LADA cases are found in between 6% and 10% of diabetes cases. Amongst people diagnosed with diabetes at an age younger than 35 years old, LADA may account for up to 25% of cases.

How is LADA diagnosed?

Often LADA will be initially diagnosed as diabetes by way of the usual diagnosis procedures.

Following a diagnosis of diabetes, your doctor or you may have reason to suspect that the type of diabetes present is LADA.

Determining the presence of LADA is achieved by examining the presence of elevated levels of pancreatic autoantibodies amongst patients who have recently been diagnosed with diabetes but do not require insulin.

A GAD Antibody test can measure the presence of these autoantibodies.

These antibodies can identify LADA, and also can predict the rate of progression towards insulin dependency.

Another test that can be performed is a C-peptide test. However, C-peptide tests may not always draw conclusive results in people with LADA at an earlier stage of the condition’s development.


LADA is a specific type of diabetes that affects adults. It shares some similarities of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and may often be diagnosed as one of these instead of as LADA.

LADA stands for Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults. Latent means it comes on slowly – in this way it’s similar to type 2 diabetes. Autoimmune is where the body attacks its own insulin producing cells; similar to type 1 diabetes

LADA has the classic symptoms of diabetes. These are increased thirst, increased need to urinate, fatigue, dry mouth, blurry vision, slow healing of cuts or sores.

Pointers that might indicate LADA include the symptoms having come on over a period of several weeks or longer, you have someone with type 1 diabetes in your close family, you have another autoimmune condition such as Rheumatoid Arthritis or Coeliac disease.

If one or more of these apply then you may be given a GAD test to help determine what diabetes type you may have. GAD means a glutamic acid decarboxylase test.

LADA is a type of diabetes that is not completely understood and not all doctors may be fully aware of LADA as separate form of diabetes.

It is not uncommon for LADA to be misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes in some cases.

There is some debate as to how LADA should be treated. Some people may be put onto tablets such as metformin whereas others may go onto insulin.

Insulin may increase the likelihood of hypoglycemia, low blood sugar, happening but could help to slow down the loss of insulin producing cells. As with other types of diabetes, eating a healthy, balanced diet and getting activity into each day comes recommended.

Reducing your carbohydrate intake in favour of less starchy vegetables should help to regulate blood sugar levels.

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(Video) Diabetes mellitus (type 1, type 2) & diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

LADA can be misdiagnosed

As noted, because of the age at which it can develop and the slower onset of the condition, LADA can often be mistakenly misdiagnosed as type 2 diabetes.

It is beneficial if LADA is diagnosed correctly as if LADA is incorrectly diagnosed as type 2 diabetes, it could lead inappropriate treatment methods that could lead to poorer diabetes control and could accelerate the loss of insulin producing ability.

There are some clues that can give rise to a clinical suspicion of LADA rather than type 2 diabetes. These include:

  • An absence of metabolic syndrome features such as obesity, high blood pressure and cholesterol levels
  • Uncontrolled hyperglycemia despite using oral agents
  • Evidence of other autoimmune diseases (including Graves’ disease and Anaemia)

Note that some people with LADA can exhibit features of metabolic syndrome such as being overweight or obese which may complicate or delay a diagnosis of LADA.

How is LADA treated ?

Because LADA develops slowly, someone with LADA may be able to produce enough of their own insulin to keep sugar levels under control without needing insulin for a number of months or sometimes even years after the initial diagnosis of diabetes.

Insulin will almost certainly be required at some point in the future.

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In some cases, insulin therapy may be postponed. However, there is evidence to suggest that starting insulin treatment soon after a diagnosis of LADA will help to better preserve the pancreas’ ability to produce insulin.

Regular blood glucose testing is advised for people with LADA at a similar number of tests per day that are advised for people with type 1 diabetes.

This means that it is advisable to test your blood sugar levels before each meal and before bed. [181]

What complications are related to LADA?

Ketoacidosis is a short-term complication of LADA, particularly once the pancreas has lost much of its ability to produce insulin

People with LADA should be aware of the signs of ketoacidosis and how to test for ketones if needed.

The risks of long term complications of diabetes will be similar to the risks in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

The possible long term complications of diabetes include:

  • Heart disease and stroke
  • Retinopathy (retinal disease)
  • Nephropathy (kidney disease)
  • Neuropathy (nerve disease)
  • Foot problems

What complications are related to LADA?

Ketoacidosis is a long-term complication of LADA, particularly once insulin dependence develops.

Cardiovascular disease risks are similar to those of type 2 diabetics, but if this complication develops hyperglycaemia is a stronger risk factor.

Microvascular complications such as retinopathy and neuropathy are similar to those people with type 2 diabetes.

How is LADA managed?

The treatment of LADA needs to focus on controlling hyperglycaemia and preventing the onset of any complications.

It is important to preserve beta cell function amongst LADA patients for as long as possible. Insulin can be used to treat LADA, as can metformin and thiazolidinediones

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Anything that can help to restore beta cell function should be considered.

Learn about the different types of diabetes and how their treatment plans differ.

Diabetes is a group of conditions where the body cannot produce enough or any insulin, cannot properly use the insulin that is produced, or cannot do a combination of either.. This can lead to high blood sugar levels.. About of people diagnosed with gestational diabetes go on to develop type 2 diabetes.. Type 1 diabetes often develops more quickly and can cause symptoms like weight loss or a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis .. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur when you have very high blood sugar but little or no insulin in your body.. But most people with prediabetes do not know they have the condition.. Prediabetes occurs when your blood glucose is higher than it should be but not high enough to be diabetes.. Type 2 diabetes may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease , especially if your blood sugar is not well managed.. High blood sugar levels during pregnancy can increase the risk of:. If you have gestational diabetes, your blood sugar targets will be lower than people with other types of diabetes.. All people with type 1 diabetes must take insulin to live since damage to the pancreas is permanent.. Insulin is injected just under the skin.. If necessary, you may also need to take medication to manage cholesterol, high blood pressure, or other complications.. Type 2 diabetes can be managed and sometimes even reversed with diet and exercise.. If metformin does not work, your doctor can prescribe another medication.

Some people think type 2 diabetes may develop into type 1 diabetes. However, they have different mechanisms and cannot develop into each other. Learn more here.

A person with type 1 diabetes can receive an incorrect diagnosis of type 2 diabetes if the diagnosis occurs in adulthood.. To diagnose diabetes, a doctor will perform several blood glucose tests.. The test measures how much insulin the person’s pancreas is producing, and a low result may indicate type 1 diabetes.. However, the levels can also be low in people with long-standing type 2 diabetes, where their pancreas produces too little insulin.. Some people can control the symptoms of type 2 diabetes by making lifestyle changes.. As such, doctors will often prescribe other medications and lifestyle changes for people with type 2 diabetes instead.. As a result, people with type 1 diabetes are dependent on insulin, and people sometimes call the condition insulin-dependent diabetes.

Learn about the symptoms of type 2 diabetes, what causes the disease, how it’s diagnosed, and steps you can take to help prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes, is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high.. You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight or have obesity .. Managing your blood glucose, blood pressure , and cholesterol , and quitting smoking if you smoke, are important ways to manage your type 2 diabetes .. Along with following your diabetes care plan, you may need diabetes medicines, which may include pills or medicines you inject under your skin, such as insulin.. Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program , sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, has shown that you can take steps to reduce your chances of developing type 2 diabetes if you have risk factors for the disease.. Long-term effects of lifestyle intervention or metformin on diabetes development and microvascular complications over 15-year follow-up: the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study.

Diabetes mellitus, more commonly known as diabetes, actually consists of five different types. Learn more about the differences between each one.

There are five types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), gestational diabetes, and monogenic diabetes.. If the disease progresses, a number of complications are possible, including vision changes or loss ( diabetic retinopathy ), diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage), increased risk of heart disease, kidney damage, and more.. Type 1 diabetes has also been referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes and juvenile diabetes .. Type 2 diabetes has also been called non-insulin dependent diabetes .. Type 2 diabetes is treated with medication meant to improve the glucose uptake into cells or increase the body's sensitivity to insulin, but great results have been seen by using diet and lifestyle changes, such as weight loss , exercise, and stress reduction to counteract the condition.. If you develop high fasting blood sugar during pregnancy, but have not been diagnosed with diabetes previously, you may have gestational diabetes .. However, having gestational diabetes does put some women at higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes down the line.. Monogenic diabetes is a lesser known type of diabetes because it's rare, making up only about 1% to 4% of diabetes cases.. Both forms may be misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes, and MODY may be confused with type 2 diabetes.. Research centering on the link specifically between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's has led some experts to call Alzheimer's disease type 3 diabetes.. Some research suggests that having diabetes can increase your risk of Alzheimer's by 65% and that 50% of people with type 2 diabetes will go on to develop Alzheimer's.

Whether you're living with diabetes or are newly diagnosed, the path to understanding it starts here. Find resources and connect with community.

Here’s what you need to know about type 1 diabetes.. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes—and it means that your body doesn’t use insulin properly.. A key part of managing type 2 diabetes is maintaining a healthy diet.. Work to find helpful tips and diet plans that best suit your lifestyle—and how you can make your nutritional intake work the hardest for you.. The key is to find activities you love and do them as often as you can.. It means that, by working with your doctor, you can have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby.. Your treatment may also include daily blood glucose testing and insulin injections.. In addition to type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes, a small minority of people develop specific types of diabetes due to other causes.. If you discover that you do have prediabetes, remember that it doesn’t mean you’ll develop type 2, particularly if you follow a treatment plan and a diet and exercise routine.. You can do so much to make sure the people you love are thriving as they manage their diabetes.

Learn about type 1 diabetes and its causes, diagnosis, and treatment. You can’t prevent type 1 diabetes, but you can manage it with insulin and healthy habits.

In most people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s immune system , which normally fights infection, attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that make insulin.. Sometimes the first symptoms of type 1 diabetes are signs of a life-threatening condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) .. Health care professionals usually test people for type 1 diabetes if they have clear-cut diabetes symptoms.. Treatment depends on the type of diabetes, so knowing whether you have type 1 or type 2 is important.. To find out if your diabetes is type 1, your health care professional may test your blood for certain autoantibodies.. The presence of certain types of autoantibodies is common in type 1 but not in type 2 diabetes.. The presence of autoantibodies, even without diabetes symptoms, means the family member is more likely to develop type 1 diabetes.. Some people who have trouble reaching their blood glucose targets with insulin alone also might need to take another type of diabetes medicine that works with insulin, such as pramlintide .. The NIH has recently funded a large research study to test use of pramlintide along with insulin and glucagon in people with type 1 diabetes.. Reseachers are also studying other diabetes pills that people with type 1 diabetes might take along with insulin.. This system tests your glucose level every 5 minutes throughout the day and night through a continuous glucose monitor , and automatically gives you the right amount of basal insulin , a long-acting insulin, through a separate insulin pump.. Starting in late 2016 and early 2017, the NIDDK has funded several important studies on different types of artificial pancreas devices to better help people with type 1 diabetes manage their disease.. The devices may also help people with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.

In a discovery that could have a major impact on diabetes diagnosis and management, and bring personalized medicine a step closer, Scandinavian researchers say they have identified five types of diabetes.

Gathering data on almost 15 000 patients from across five cohorts in Sweden and Finland, they found that using six standard measurements identified five clusters of patients with diabetes.. The clusters included one of very insulin-resistant individuals at significantly higher risk of diabetic nephropathy, another of relatively young insulin deficient individuals with poor metabolic control (high HbA 1c ), and a large group of elderly patients with the most benign disease course.. The team used six variables to conduct a data-driven cluster analysis of 8980 patients from ANDIS, all of whom were newly diagnosed with diabetes between 2008 and 2016.. ClusterN (%)CharacteristicsName1 577 (6.4)Early disease onset (at a young age), essentially corresponds with type 1 diabetes and LADA, relatively low BMI, poor metabolic control, insulin deficiency (impaired insulin production), GADA+. Severe autoimmune diabetes (SAID) 2 1575 (17.5)Similar to cluster 1 but GADA–, high HbA 1c , highest incidence of retinopathySevere insulin-deficient diabetes (SIDD) 3 1373 (15.3)Insulin resistance, high BMI, highest incidence of nephropathySevere-insulin resistant diabetes (SIRD) 4 1942 (21.6)Obesity, younger age, not insulin resistantMild obesity-related diabetes (MOD) 5 3513 (39.1)Older age, modest metabolic alterationsMild age-related diabetes (MARD)ANDIS: Swedish All New Diabetics in Scania; BMI: body mass index; GADA: glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies; LADA: latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.. Researchers then tested the clusters in 1466 patients from SDR, 844 patients from ANDIU and 3485 patients from DIREVA, and identified similar patient distributions and cluster characteristics.. Looking at disease progression and treatment, the team found that clusters 1 and 2 had substantially higher HbA 1c levels than the other clusters, which persisted throughout follow-up.. Insulin was prescribed to 42% of cluster 1 patients and 29% of cluster 2 patients, but to less than 4% of patients in other clusters.. The current results follow those of a study published in late 2017, which showed that patients with diabetes resulting from pancreatic dysfunction — type 3c diabetes — are often misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes.. As reported by Medscape Medical News , that analysis of more than 30 000 incident diabetes cases showed that type 3c diabetes, also known as diabetes of the exocrine pancreas, is almost as common as type 1 diabetes and misdiagnosed in over 87% of patients.. It was conducted by researchers from Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa Health Care Center, Uppsala University, Lund University Hospital, Folkhalsan Research Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, University of Helsinki, and University of Gothenburg.

Learn more about type 1 diabetes from endocrinologist Yogish Kudva, M.B.B.S.

If you are diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor may order additional tests to check for antibodies that are common in type 1 diabetes in the test called C-peptide, which measures the amount of insulin produced when checked simultaneously with a fasting glucose.. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.. Some of the symptoms of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes are:. Risk factors for diabetes depend on the type of diabetes.. Sometimes family members of people with type 1 diabetes are tested for the presence of diabetes immune system cells (autoantibodies).. Prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes are more common in people who are overweight or obese.. Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the eye (diabetic retinopathy).. Babies of mothers who have gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life.. But the healthy lifestyle choices that help treat prediabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes can also help prevent them:. Oral diabetes drugs such as metformin (Glumetza, Fortamet, others) may lower the risk of type 2 diabetes.. Prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes and associated comorbidities: Standards of Medical Care in diabetes — 2022.. Obesity and weight management for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes — 2022.

Type 2 diabetes is an impairment in the way the body regulates and uses sugar (glucose) as a fuel. This long-term (chronic) condition results in too much sugar circulating in the bloodstream. Eventually, high blood sugar levels can lead to disorders of the circulatory, nervous and immune systems.

Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes, but both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can begin during childhood and adulthood.. The pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin to manage blood sugar levels.. Factors that may increase your risk of type 2 diabetes include:. The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if your parent or sibling has type 2 diabetes.. Type 2 diabetes.

Learn about the different types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and Gestational diabetes at www.DiabeticCareServices.com. Identify the causes and symptoms of diabetes, and learn how to treat and cope with this disease.

There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.. Because people with type 1 diabetes must take insulin in order to survive – and because it often strikes children - this form of the disease is commonly referred to as insulin-dependent or juvenile-onset diabetes.. Similar to type 1 diabetes, type 2 causes a build-up of glucose in the blood which damages the body’s organ systems.. Although type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes have different causes, they have two primary risk factors in common: genetics and environmental triggers.. Causes of Diabetes Type 1 There is definitely a genetic risk factor associated with type 1 diabetes.. Causes of Diabetes Type 2 The genetic connection in diabetes type 2 is stronger than in type 1 diabetes.. The Genetic Risks of. Type 1 Diabetes If your father has type 1 diabetes, your risk is 6%.. Ethnicity: African Americans, Hispanics and Pima Indians are the ethnic groups with the highest risk of type 2 diabetes in the U.S. Geography: Regardless of the genetic risk, people in non-Westernized countries tend not to develop type 2 diabetes.

Experts break down the symptoms, causes, and treatments of both types.

So what is type 1 vs. type 2 diabetes?. At their foundation, type 1 and type 2 diabetes involve problems with the pancreas’ ability to produce and use the hormone insulin, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) .. In a healthy body, the pancreas produces insulin, which travels to the bloodstream to break down sugars from food.. But in those with diabetes, your body can’t make enough insulin, or can’t use insulin well, resulting in increased levels of glucose in the blood and urine.. You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of the disease, or are overweight or obese.. Causes of type 1 diabetes. Causes of type 2 diabetes. Extra weight causes insulin resistance, a condition in which muscle, liver, and fat cells do not use insulin well, causing the body to need more insulin.. But even still, Dr. Block says many patients will require insulin with type 2 diabetes to help keep blood glucose levels under control.. That means that, according to Dr. Block, 70% of the causes of type 2 diabetes are out of the patient’s control.

You have Type 2 diabetes if your tissues are resistant to insulin, and if you lack enough insulin to overcome this resistance.. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes of diabetes worldwide and accounts for 90-95% of cases.. Family history of diabetes in close relatives Being of African, Asian, Native American, Latino, or Pacific Islander ancestry High blood pressure High blood levels of fats, known as triglycerides, coupled with low levels of high-density lipoprotein, known as HDL, in the blood stream Prior diagnosis of pre-diabetes such as glucose intolerance or elevated blood sugar In women, a history of giving birth to large babies (over 9 lbs) and/or diabetes during pregnancy. 80-90% of people with Type 2 diabetes have other family members with diabetes.. If one identical twin has type 2 diabetes, there is up to a 75% chance that the other will also be diabetic.. To develop type 2 diabetes, you must be born with the genetic traits for diabetes.. The hallmark of type 2 diabetes is resistance to the action of insulin and insufficient insulin to overcome that resistance. As a group, everyone with with type 2 diabetes has both insulin resistance and an inability to overcome the resistance by secreting more insulin.. The development of type 2 diabetes is thought to be a progression from normal blood sugars to pre-diabetes to a diagnosis of overt diabetes.. Historically pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes has been diagnosed when individuals are older; however, because of a wide-spread epidemic of obesity which causes insulin resistance, the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is occurring more frequently at younger and younger ages.. Some individuals with other types of diabetes may be misdiagnosed as having type 2 diabetes.. Up to 10% of individuals who are initially diagnosed with type 2 diabetes may actually have an adult onset of type 1 diabetes also known as LADA or Latent Autoimmune Diabetes of Adults.. Pre-diabetes is a stage between not having diabetes and having type 2 diabetes.. One in three people with pre-diabetes will go on to develop type 2 diabetes; however, with the correct lifestyle changes, including exercise, weight loss, a healthy diet, and the correct medications, the odds decrease so that only one in nine pre-diabetic people develop type 2 diabetes.. However, even if blood sugar levels return to normal, the genetic risk for type 2 diabetes remains unchanged – you must continue positive lifestyle changes, and medication or risk the return of elevated blood sugar levels.

Both the types are characterized by the higher blood sugar level as compared to the normal one. But the basic difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes is their cause and development

Diabetes is categorized as Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes .. Earlier Type 1 diabetes was known as juvenile onset or insulin-dependent diabetes and Type 2 diabetes was known as adult onset or non-insulin-dependent diabetes.. Basis for ComparisonType 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetesMeaningType 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, in which body's immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells of the pancreas, which are responsible for making insulin.. In the case of Type 2 diabetes, the body is not able to make or use the insulin up to the mark or requirement.CauseThe main cause of getting Type 1 diabetes is that the body's immune system itself starts destroying the cells (beta cells) that release the insulin and thus the insulin production stops in the body.. In the case Type 2 diabetes the body is not able to use the insulin in the right way, this is known as insulin resistance and later on the condition gets worse when pancreas starts making very less insulin, giving rise to insulin deficiency Age of Onset Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults.. Risk factorsFrequent episodes of low-blood sugar (hypoglycemia).Fewer chances of having low-blood sugar, unless the patient is using the diabetes medicine or insulin.Ketoacidosis or diabetic coma, high blood pressure, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), ulcers, kidney disease, blindness, heart attack, high blood pressure, ulcers.. As discussed above the primary cause of getting Type 1 diabetes is the body’s immune system itself which starts destroying the cells (beta cells) that release the insulin and thus the insulin production stops in the body.. On the other hand in Type 2 diabetes the body is not able to use the insulin in the right way, this is known as insulin resistance , and later on, the condition gets worse when pancreas starts making very less insulin, giving rise to insulin deficiency.. Signs and Symptoms are almost common in both the types like frequent urination, weight loss, extreme thirst and hunger, vomiting and nausea, extreme weakness and fatigue, irritability, blurred vision, dry and itchy skin, numbness in skin, thirst, and hunger.. Risk factors of type 1 are frequent episodes of low-blood sugar (hypoglycemia), Ketoacidosis or diabetic coma, high blood pressure, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), ulcers, kidney disease, blindness, heart attack, high blood pressure, ulcers.. On the other hand Type 2 diabetes treatment include – taking diabetic medicines, injections of insulin, regular exercise, controlling blood pressure, maintaining the cholesterol level, taking healthy diet.


1. Attacked by LADA Diabetes - Finding Answers for Glucose Control
(Beat Diabetes!)
2. Dr. Sanjoy Dutta, Ph.D. - CSO, JDRF International - Improving Lives Curing Type 1 Diabetes (T1D)
(Progress, Potential, and Possibilities)
3. Symposia - Diabetes: Trendo 2014 Discussion
(Trendo 2014)
4. UMACO Wellness Webinar 2021 #5 | Diabetes: Beyond the Basics
(United Medical)
5. Ask the Experts: Getting Started: Organizing the Diabetes To Do List.
(American Diabetes Association)
6. Session #1: Empowerment and Self Management of Diabetes: The Pharmacist and Diabetes Care
(National Center for Health in Public Housing)

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