Causes and Risk Factors of Psoriasis (2022)

Psoriasis was once thought to be a dermatological condition like eczema but is, in fact, an autoimmune disorder more closely related to rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Per its name, an autoimmune disorder is one in which the body's immune system turns its defenses on itself, attacking cells and tissues it mistakenly thinks are harmful. With psoriasis, the primary target of the assault is cells in the outer layer of skin known as the epidermis, which leads to the formation of dry, red, scaly patches called plaques.

Researchers don't fully understand what causes the immune system to malfunction in this way but believe that genetics and environmental factors both play a part.

Causes and Risk Factors of Psoriasis (1)

Inflammation

Psoriasis is characterized by inflammation. Inflammation is a factor in many conditions and, in general, starts when a type of white blood cell (T-cell) detects a disease-causing microorganism (pathogen) somewhere in the body. In response, the T-cell moves to the affected tissue and releases an inflammatory protein known as tumor necrosis factor (TNF).

With psoriasis, there is no pathogen. Instead, the T-cells suddenly and inexplicably migrate to the epidermis and secrete TNF as if the body is under attack. The ensuing inflammation is believed to stimulate the hyperproduction of skin cells, known as keratinocytes, which make up around 90% of the epidermis.

Under normal circumstances, keratinocytes form and shed in 28 to 30 days. With psoriasis, that time is cut to a mere three to five days.

The accelerated production causes cells to literally push through the protective outer layer the epidermis, called the stratum corneum, leading to the formation of dry, scaly plaques. Other less common forms of the disease trigger the development of pus-filled blisters (pustular psoriasis) or moist lesions in folds of skin (inverse psoriasis).

6 Most Common Types of Psoriasis

Genetics

Genetics is believed to play a central role in the development of psoriasis. While the exact link has yet to be established, scientists have identified no less than 25 genetic mutations that increase a person's risk of the disease.

Among them, a mutation known as CARD14 is believed to be strongly linked to both plaque and pustular psoriasis, as well as a related disorder known as psoriatic arthritis.

Having one or more of these mutations doesn't mean you will get psoriasis, but it does increase your risk. According to a 2015 review inCurrent Dermatology Report, a child with two parents with psoriasis has no less than a 50/50 chance of developing the disease.

The impact of genetics is further evidenced by twins studies in which psoriasis is three times more likely to affect both identical twins than both non-identical twins.

(Video) Psoriasis: Signs, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment | Merck Manual Consumer Version

2:07

Risk Factors

Although genetics may predispose you to psoriasis, it is possible to have a mutation—even the CARD14 mutation—and never get psoriasis. In order for the disease to develop, scientists believe that an environmental trigger is needed to activate the disease.

This is evidenced, in part, by a variety of conditions that are known to trigger an acute episode (known as a flare). These include, among other things, infections, skin trauma, obesity, and medications.

Infections

Any type of infection can cause psoriasis to appear or flare. This is especially true with guttate psoriasis which almost always follows an infection, most especially a strep infection. Guttate psoriasisis the second most common type of psoriasis and one that strikes children more frequently than adults.

HIV is another infection commonly associated with psoriasis. While people withHIVdon't have psoriasis any more often than people in the general population, the severity of the disease tends to be far worse. This isn't surprising given that HIV further suppresses an immune system that is already malfunctioning.

Skin Trauma

Any sort of trauma to the skin (including a cut, scrape, surgical wound, tattoo, burn, or sunburn) can potentially cause a flare. This is known as theKoebner phenomenon, a reaction that occurs along a line of a skin trauma.

Scientists don't totally understand why this occurs but suspect that inflammatory proteins (cytokines) overstimulate the skin and activate autoimmune antibodies (autoantibodies) that incite an inflammatory response.

Even the vigorous rubbing of skin or friction from a tight collar or belt can trigger a reaction. There is no way to prevent a Koebner response, but you can reduce the risk by applying sunscreen, avoiding scratching, and wearing softer fabrics.

If you have psoriasis, it is extra important to treat minor skin injuries right away. Clean the skin with soap and water, apply an antibiotic ointment, and cover the wound with a bandage. A compression bandage may be especially useful. Doing so may reduce the risk of an acute flare.

Obesity

A 2017 study from Polandsuggests that obesity is a significant risk factor for psoriasis. It is known that the excessive accumulation of adipose (fat-storing) cells stimulations the production of cytokines. This response is closely linked to increases in a person's body mass index (BMI).

It is believed that, at some point, the inflammation induced by obesity can instigate the outbreak of psoriasis symptoms. This often presents in the form of inverse psoriasis, the type that develops in skin folds (including the armpits, under the breasts, between the buttocks, or in the creases of the groin or belly). These are not only the areas with the greatest accumulation of adipose cells but also where the skin is most likely to rub together, causing friction.

Obesity can also affect psoriasis treatment, requiring a dose increase to achieve the desired effect. This, in turn, increases the risk of side effects.

(Video) Psoriasis: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Pathology, and Treatment, Animation

How Psoriasis Is Treated

Medications

Certain medications can also trigger psoriasis symptoms. It is unclear why this occurs and why some people are affected and others aren't. Among some of the common culprits are:

  • High blood pressure medications, including beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors
  • Lithium, prescribed to treatbipolar disorders
  • Certain disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), like Plaquenil (hydroxychloroquine) and Aralen (chloroquine)
  • Interferons, often used to treathepatitis C
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Terbinafine, an antifungal drug
  • Tetracycline antibiotics

Tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) inhibitors used to treat autoimmune disorders—including Remicade (infliximab), Humira (adalimumab), and Enbrel (etanercept)—can also trigger psoriasis symptoms in the first couple of months of treatment as the body adapts to the medication.

Oral corticosteroids used to treat psoriasis can trigger severe "rebound" symptoms if stopped abruptly. If the corticosteroids are no longer needed, your healthcare provider will help you gradually taper off the drug so that this doesn't occur.

Psoriasis Healthcare Provider Discussion Guide

Get our printable guide for your next healthcare provider's appointment to help you ask the right questions.

Causes and Risk Factors of Psoriasis (2)

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Lifestyle and Environment

How (and even where) you live can play a role in your risk of psoriasis and your ability to manage the disease.

Smoking

Given how harmful cigarettes are to your general health, it is no surprise that they can also increase your risk of psoriasis. In fact, research published in the journal Psoriasissuggests that the amount you smoke per day is directly linked to your risk for new or recurrent symptoms.

Smoking can also influence your response to treatment by promoting systemic inflammation, reducing the efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs.

Stress

Stress has an enormous impact on your immune system and can play a significant role in the development of psoriasis. On the flip side, acute psoriatic flares can induce stress and make your condition worse. For some people, stress both triggers and perpetuates the disease.

(Video) Overview of Psoriasis | What Causes It? What Makes It Worse? | Subtypes and Treatment

Even though stress is not entirely avoidable, there are things you can do to control it, including regular exercise, yoga, meditation, and deep breathing.

Physical stress—from surgery or childbirth, for example—is also a common trigger for psoriasis outbreaks.

Cold Weather

People with psoriasis often experience flares during the winter months or when they visit a cold, dry climate.

Cold temperatures sap the air of moisture, leading to dry skin. Winter is also associated with less sunlight, which deprives the body of ultraviolet (UV) radiation beneficial to psoriatic skin. Phototherapy delivered in a dermatologist's office can help counter this effect.

With that being said, too much sun can cause inflammation and sunburn, triggering psoriasis symptoms. The same applies to the use of tanning beds or tanning lamps, both of which should be avoided.

Gluten

Research from the University of California, San Franciscoreports that certain people with psoriasis have high levels of gluten antibodies associated with the autoimmune disorder celiac disease (CD). This suggests that gluten, a protein found in some grains, may trigger psoriasis in the same way that it triggers CD.

There is even evidence that agluten-free dietmay improve symptoms in people resistant to traditional psoriasis treatments. Many such individuals may have undiagnosed CD or non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

More research on this potential connection is needed, however.

It is not uncommon for people with psoriasis to have multiple autoimmune diseases, often with shared triggers and overlapping symptoms.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • What are the risk factors for psoriasis?

    Risk factors for psoriasis include infections, skin trauma, obesity, and certain medications. While any infection can trigger the immune disease, strep and HIV are more likely to trigger psoriasis than other infections.

  • What medications can trigger psoriasis?

    (Video) Psoriasis: Causes, treatment and control

    Medications that can trigger psoriasis symptoms include ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, lithium, DMARDs such as Plaquenil and Aralen, interferons, NSAIDs, terbinafine, and tetracycline antibiotics.

  • What lifestyle factors contribute to psoriasis?

    Lifestyle factors that can trigger psoriasis include smoking, stress, and obesity.

  • Can stress cause psoriasis?

    Stress can play a significant role in the development of psoriasis because it harms your immune system. Stress can also trigger a psoriasis flare-up.

  • Are there environmental risk factors for psoriasis?

    Environmental risk factors for psoriasis flare-ups include the weather. In the winter, the air is colder and drier. Dry air leads to dry skin.In addition, the summer can also trigger a psoriasis flare-up. Getting too much sun can cause inflammation and sunburn, which can bring on a psoriasis flare-up.

FAQs

Causes and Risk Factors of Psoriasis? ›

Psoriasis triggers
  • Infections, such as strep throat or skin infections.
  • Weather, especially cold, dry conditions.
  • Injury to the skin, such as a cut or scrape, a bug bite, or a severe sunburn.
  • Smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke.
  • Heavy alcohol consumption.
Jun 4, 2022

What causes psoriasis to spread? ›

One person cannot pass psoriasis to another. The condition can spread from one part of a person's body to another. This is not because it passes from the affected skin to other areas but because of changes to the immune system process, which causes psoriasis.

Is psoriasis a health risk? ›

Psoriasis may triple your chances of having a heart attack and stroke, because inflammation can damage the blood vessels leading to your heart and brain. For your heart's sake, watch your blood pressure and cholesterol, and quit smoking. Try to exercise every day. Include healthy fats in your diet.

What environmental factors affect psoriasis? ›

The weather may trigger a flare. Cold weather can often cause psoriasis flares due to less sunlight and humidity, heated and drier indoor air, as well as stress and illness. Warm weather can often improve psoriasis because of natural sunlight and higher humidity.

What is the best treatment of psoriasis? ›

Steroid creams or ointments (topical corticosteroids) are commonly used to treat mild to moderate psoriasis in most areas of the body. The treatment works by reducing inflammation. This slows the production of skin cells and reduces itching. Topical corticosteroids range in strength from mild to very strong.

Can psoriasis be caused by stress? ›

Stress is a common trigger for a psoriasis flare. Stress also can make itch worse. This makes managing stress a particularly important skill for people with psoriasis.

Is psoriasis a blood disorder? ›

At a basic level, psoriasis is a disorder of the immune system. White blood cells called T-helper lymphocytes become overactive, producing excess amounts of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-2, and interferon-gamma. In turn, these chemicals trigger inflammation in the skin and other organs.

Is psoriasis can be cured? ›

There's no cure for psoriasis. But treatment can help you feel better. You may need topical, oral, or body-wide (systemic) treatments. Even if you have severe psoriasis, there are good ways to manage your flare-ups.

Is psoriasis a lifetime disease? ›

Because psoriasis is a lifelong disease, it's understandable that you may want to stop treatment at some point. Always talk with your dermatologist before you stop treatment. Some treatments can be stopped immediately. Others need to be discontinued slowly to prevent psoriasis from worsening (rebound).

What are the factors of psoriasis? ›

Common psoriasis triggers include:
  • Infections, such as strep throat or skin infections.
  • Weather, especially cold, dry conditions.
  • Injury to the skin, such as a cut or scrape, a bug bite, or a severe sunburn.
  • Smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke.
  • Heavy alcohol consumption.
Jun 4, 2022

When does psoriasis develop? ›

It can start at any age, but most often develops in adults between 20 and 30 years old and between 50 and 60 years old. It affects men and women equally. The severity of psoriasis varies greatly from person to person.

Does anxiety cause psoriasis? ›

Psoriasis is linked to several mental health conditions, including anxiety, stress, and depression. Some evidence has suggested that anxiety and stress can trigger psoriasis flares and that psoriasis flares can trigger anxiety or stress.

What clears psoriasis fast? ›

Salicylic acid.

Salicylic acid shampoos and scalp solutions reduce the scaling of scalp psoriasis. They are available in nonprescription or prescription strengths. This type of product may be used alone or with other topical therapy, as it prepares the scalp to absorb the medication more easily.

What heals psoriasis naturally? ›

Here are eight home remedies that have shown some promising results in providing relief for psoriasis symptoms.
  • Salt baths. ...
  • Aloe vera. ...
  • Omega-3 fatty acids. ...
  • Turmeric. ...
  • Oregon grape. ...
  • Maintaining a healthy weight. ...
  • Using a humidifier. ...
  • Stress-relieving activities.

What food should psoriasis patients avoid? ›

With psoriasis, it's important to avoid foods that can trigger inflammation.
...
Foods to avoid include:
  • wheat and wheat derivatives.
  • rye, barley, and malt.
  • pasta, noodles, and baked goods containing wheat, rye, barley, and malt.
  • certain processed foods.
  • certain sauces and condiments.
  • beer and malt beverages.

Does Sun help psoriasis? ›

Natural sunlight

The sun's ultraviolet rays are made up of UVA and UVB rays. UVB rays are more effective at treating psoriasis symptoms because they slow the rapid rate of skin growth and shedding. Although sunlight can benefit psoriasis, you should take care to protect yourself from sunburn.

Is water good for psoriasis? ›

Does Drinking Water Help Psoriasis? In general, yes, drinking water and staying properly hydrated can help keep the skin hydrated and may reduce the number and severity of flare-ups. Psoriasis may come and go without any apparent reason. It may even go away for months, but it will almost always return eventually.

Is Vaseline good for psoriasis? ›

Use over-the-counter products that your doctor suggests. These may include Cetaphil, Lubriderm, or Eucerin. Petroleum jelly (such as Vaseline) and vegetable shortening (such as Crisco) also work.

Can the Covid vaccine make psoriasis worse? ›

In some patients, COVID-19 vaccinations may be associated with disease exacerbation of psoriasis, with an average interval of approximately 10 days. These abrupt clinical deteriorations are irrelevant to the type of vaccines injected, the baseline or pre-vaccination PASI, or the HLA-C genotyping.

Can psoriasis affect the brain? ›

Psoriasis affects your brain chemicals.

These make skin cells grow out of control and form scaly plaques. They also change levels of chemicals in your brain that affect your mood. A cytokine called TNF-alpha may affect brain chemicals like serotonin in a way that could lead to depression.

Can Covid affect psoriasis? ›

This is the first case reported of an acute guttate flare of chronic psoriasis secondary to confirmed COVID-19 infection. Guttate psoriasis is known to have a better prognosis than other types of psoriasis and rapid involution with long-term remission is common.

What happens if psoriasis is left untreated? ›

Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune skin condition that causes thick skin patches to form on the body. Without treatment, psoriasis can cause symptoms such as itchiness and pain. It can also lead to other conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, psoriatic arthritis, and type 2 diabetes.

Does coconut oil help with psoriasis? ›

Coconut oil can help counter dryness caused by psoriasis by trapping moisture in the skin, says Burns. Gently rub a small amount on psoriasis plaques, as you would any moisturizer. You can also use the oil on the scalp to help loosen psoriasis scales.

How long can you live with psoriasis? ›

Among patients who died, those with severe psoriasis died at a younger age than controls. For example, men with severe psoriasis died 3.5 years (95% CI, 1.2-5.8 years; P < . 001) younger than men without psoriasis, and women with severe psoriasis died 4.4 years (95% CI, 2.2-6.6 years; P < .

Who is most at risk for psoriasis? ›

Symptoms often start between ages 15 and 25, but can start at any age. Men, women, and children of all skin colors can get psoriasis. *According to the Journal of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis.

Who is most affected by psoriasis? ›

In the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which estimated the prevalence of psoriasis in US adults age 20 and older to be 3.2 percent, psoriasis was most common in Caucasians (3.6%), followed by African Americans (1.9%), and Hispanics (1.6%).

Which country has the most psoriasis? ›

Also according to the Atlas, the country most affected by psoriasis is Norway with a prevalence of 1.98% of the overall population. The lowest prevalence is across East Asia at 0.12%.

How can psoriasis be prevented? ›

There is no way to prevent psoriasis. But you can take steps to improve symptoms or help reduce the number of psoriasis flare-ups.

Is psoriasis is genetic? ›

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder that can run in families. Your skin cells grow too quickly and pile up into bumps and thick scaly patches called plaques. You're more likely to get psoriasis if your blood relatives also have it. That's because certain genes play a role in who gets the condition.

What causes hand psoriasis? ›

Psoriasis of the hand is caused by white blood cells called T cells that help protect the body from disease. These cells are triggered within the body by mistake. The increased activity of the T cells shortens the life span of the skin cells in your hand.

Where does psoriasis start on the body? ›

Psoriasis is a common skin disorder that forms thick, red, bumpy patches covered with silvery scales. They can pop up anywhere, but most appear on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. Psoriasis can't be passed from person to person. It does sometimes happen in members of the same family.

Does lemon juice help psoriasis? ›

Psoriasis and dandruff treatment

Since lemon juice can get rid of dead skin cells, the theory is that it might also alleviate skin patches attributed to psoriasis and dandruff. The sloughing-off effects are attributed to lemon's natural levels of citric acid, as AHAs have an exfoliating effect on the skin.

Does psoriasis affect your memory? ›

The main finding of the present study is that patients with psoriasis present impairment of working memory, when compared to healthy controls.

Why is it called the heartbreak of psoriasis? ›

Many, many years ago, years before I was around, a product was advertised to deal with psoriasis, or as the advertisement said, “the heartbreak of psoriasis.” That brings me to the 2000s and my own “heartbreak.” As the name implies, my disease of psoriatic arthritis involves not only arthritis but also psoriasis.

What clears psoriasis fast? ›

Salicylic acid.

Salicylic acid shampoos and scalp solutions reduce the scaling of scalp psoriasis. They are available in nonprescription or prescription strengths. This type of product may be used alone or with other topical therapy, as it prepares the scalp to absorb the medication more easily.

What happens if you leave psoriasis untreated? ›

Without treatment, the symptoms of psoriasis can worsen, and it can lead to other complications, such as psoriatic arthritis and diabetes. Psoriasis causes the body to produce new skin cells in days rather than weeks. These cells accumulate on the skin's surface, producing thick and scaly patches that can be itchy.

Is psoriasis fungal or bacterial? ›

While ringworm is a temporary rash caused by a fungus, psoriasis is an autoimmune condition that lasts for a lifetime, although the symptoms can be treated. Determining which condition you have will help you get the treatment you need quickly.

What heals psoriasis naturally? ›

Here are eight home remedies that have shown some promising results in providing relief for psoriasis symptoms.
  • Salt baths. ...
  • Aloe vera. ...
  • Omega-3 fatty acids. ...
  • Turmeric. ...
  • Oregon grape. ...
  • Maintaining a healthy weight. ...
  • Using a humidifier. ...
  • Stress-relieving activities.

What food should psoriasis patients avoid? ›

With psoriasis, it's important to avoid foods that can trigger inflammation.
...
Foods to avoid include:
  • wheat and wheat derivatives.
  • rye, barley, and malt.
  • pasta, noodles, and baked goods containing wheat, rye, barley, and malt.
  • certain processed foods.
  • certain sauces and condiments.
  • beer and malt beverages.

Is Vaseline good for psoriasis? ›

Use over-the-counter products that your doctor suggests. These may include Cetaphil, Lubriderm, or Eucerin. Petroleum jelly (such as Vaseline) and vegetable shortening (such as Crisco) also work.

Does psoriasis go away naturally? ›

Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition that is not curable and it will not go away on its own. However, the disease fluctuates and many people can have clear skin for years at a time, and occasional flare-ups when the skin is worse.

Can psoriasis disappear by itself? ›

Even without treatment, psoriasis may disappear. Spontaneous remission, or remission that occurs without treatment, is also possible. In that case, it's likely your immune system turned off its attack on your body. This allows the symptoms to fade.

How do they test for psoriasis? ›

A skin examination is often enough to diagnose psoriasis. A skin biopsy will be done if more information is needed to confirm the diagnosis. A skin biopsy is performed by removing a tiny piece of skin. The skin sample is then examined under a microscope to look for signs of psoriasis.

How long can psoriasis last? ›

Most periods of psoriasis remission last between 1 month and a year. But some people can stay in psoriasis remission for years.

What is the best soap to use if you have psoriasis? ›

For example, use a mild soap (such as Dove, Basis, or Neutrogena) instead of deodorant soaps or other harsh soaps (such as Camay, Lava, or Zest). Avoid lotions that contain alcohol, which can dry the skin and make psoriasis worse.

Is there any cure for psoriasis? ›

There's no cure for psoriasis. But treatment can help you feel better. You may need topical, oral, or body-wide (systemic) treatments. Even if you have severe psoriasis, there are good ways to manage your flare-ups.

Can Covid trigger psoriasis? ›

found that flares of psoriasis were common after COVID infection, but these were largely attributed to the use of anti-malarial drugs or discontinuation of immunomodulatory therapy secondary to infection [8].

What cream can I use on psoriasis? ›

Hydrocortisone creams and ointments. You can buy a mild corticosteroid like hydrocortisone without a prescription. For a few small patches of psoriasis, a mild hydrocortisone works well. If you have more than a few small patches, you'll likely need a prescription corticosteroid to see results.

What medicines cause psoriasis? ›

Drugs that appear to have a strong causal relationship to psoriasis are beta-blockers, lithium, synthetic antimalarials, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and tetracyclines, which will be discussed in this review.

Psoriasis is a skin disease that causes a rash with itchy, scaly patches, most commonly on the knees, elbows, trunk and scalp.. Plaque psoriasis is the most common type of psoriasis.. Becomes severe or widespread Causes you discomfort and pain Causes you concern about the appearance of your skin Doesn't improve with treatment. In the most common type of psoriasis, known as plaque psoriasis, this rapid turnover of cells results in dry, scaly patches.. Infections, such as strep throat or skin infections Weather, especially cold, dry conditions Injury to the skin, such as a cut or scrape, a bug bite, or a severe sunburn Smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke Heavy alcohol consumption Certain medications — including lithium, high blood pressure drugs and antimalarial drugs Rapid withdrawal of oral or injected corticosteroids. If you have psoriasis, you're at greater risk of developing other conditions, including:. Psoriasis.. In: Habif's Clinical Dermatology.. Psoriasis.. Psoriasis.. Psoriasis: Causes.. In: Taylor and Kelly's Dermatology for Skin of Color.. Psoriasis.. Elmets CA, et al. Joint AAD-NPF guidelines of care for the management and treatment of psoriasis with topical therapy and alternative medicine modalities for psoriasis severity measures.

What causes eating disorders?

What causes eating disorders?. It’s much less common among men, who only make up 5-10 percent of people with anorexia.. Only 20 percent of people with bulimia are men.. Rumination disorder occurs when you regurgitate food from your stomach frequently without having another medical or gastrointestinal condition.. If you have an eating disorder, an underlying psychological or mental health problem may be contributing to it.. While most women with eating disorders wish to lose weight and become thinner, men with this disorder see themselves as too small and want to gain weight or increase muscle mass.. But some medications can help control symptoms of the anxiety or depressive disorder that may be causing or aggravating your eating disorder.

Learn more about how genes and certain environmental factors influence the development of various autoimmune diseases, like lupus and celiac disease.

Autoimmune disease is a term used to describe more than 100 disorders in which your body's immune system attacks its own cells and tissues, including Hashimoto's thyroiditis , Graves' disease , type 1 diabetes , and rheumatoid arthritis .. Genomic research has revealed specific genetic mutations common to people with different autoimmune diseases.. While the patterns of inheritance often appear specific to certain mutations, there is evidence that a shared underlying factor, most likely chromosomal, can predispose a person to autoimmunity.. What this suggests is that a person genetically predisposed to autoimmunity may only develop a disease if exposed to an environmental trigger that effectively "switches on" the condition.. Smoking is similarly linked to rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and Graves' disease, while salt is believed to alter the gut microbiota and increase the risk of type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis.. It is difficult to suggest which risk factors place you at the greatest risk of an autoimmune disease.

Alcohol use disorder, or alcoholism, is an addiction to alcohol. Here's what you need to know about symptoms, treatment, prevention, and more.

What is alcoholism, or alcohol use disorder?. Alcoholism has been known by a variety of terms, including alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.. Some people may drink alcohol to the point that it causes problems, but they’re not physically dependent on alcohol.. Eventually, the pleasurable feelings associated with alcohol use go away and the person with alcohol use disorder will engage in drinking to prevent withdrawal symptoms.. Although the exact cause of alcohol use disorder is unknown, there are certain factors that may increase your risk for developing this disease.. Symptoms of alcohol use disorder are based on the behaviors and physical outcomes that occur as a result of alcohol addiction.. drinking alone drinking more to feel the effects of alcohol (having a high tolerance) becoming violent or angry when asked about their drinking habits not eating or eating poorly neglecting personal hygiene missing work or school because of drinking being unable to control alcohol intake making excuses to drink continuing to drink even when legal, social, or economic problems develop giving up important social, occupational, or recreational activities because of alcohol use. People with alcohol use disorder may also experience the following physical symptoms:. drive when you’re drunk have missed work or have lost a job as a result of your drinking need more alcohol to feel “drunk” when you drink have experienced blackouts as a result of your drinking have tried to cut back on your drinking but couldn’t. There’s a chance your doctor may order blood work to check your liver function if you show signs or symptoms of liver disease.. Treatment may occur in stages and can include the following:. detoxification or withdrawal to rid your body of alcohol rehabilitation to learn new coping skills and behaviors counseling to address emotional problems that may cause you to drink support groups , including 12-step programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) medical treatment for health problems associated with alcohol use disorder medications to help control addiction. Many people who seek treatment are able to overcome the addiction.. Your outlook will also depend on the health complications that have developed as a result of your drinking.. See your doctor if you begin to engage in behaviors that are signs of alcohol use disorder or if you think that you may have a problem with alcohol.

Emotional exhaustion can arise after a period of excessive stress. Some people are more at risk than others, including those in demanding jobs or with caring responsibilities. People may not always recognize the signs of emotional exhaustion. Here, we look at the symptoms, risk factors, treatments, and prevention.

Emotional exhaustion can arise when someone experiences a period of excessive stress in their work or personal life.. But some people are more at risk than others, including people who experience the following:. Those in demanding or stressful jobs are more likely to experience emotional exhaustion and burnout than others.. The risk of emotional exhaustion increases for anyone who:. Those with burnout become increasingly more stressed about their work.. Regular mindfulness practice can reduce anxiety and depression and improve mood.. reducing stressors at home and work engaging in enjoyable activities taking time out for oneself eating a healthful diet exercising regularly limiting alcohol and avoiding tobacco getting enough sleep maintaining a good work-life balance connecting with friends, family, and others keeping a positive mindset practicing mindfulness and meditation seeking professional help at the onset of anxiety or other changes in mood. People can experience emotional exhaustion after a period of excessive stress.

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